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Baruch Spinoza

1632 - 1677

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Baruch (de) Spinoza (born Bento de Espinosa; later as an author and a correspondent Benedictus de Spinoza, anglicized to Benedict de Spinoza; 24 November 1632 – 21 February 1677) was a philosopher of Portuguese Sephardic Jewish origin, born in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. One of the foremost exponents of 17th-century Rationalism and one of the early and seminal thinkers of the Enlightenment and modern biblical criticism including modern conceptions of the self and the universe, he came to be considered "one of the most important philosophers—and certainly the most radical—of the early modern period." Inspired by Stoicism, Jewish Rationalism, Machiavelli, Hobbes, Descartes, and a variety of heterodox religious thinkers of his day, Spinoza became a leading philosophical figure of the Dutch Golden Age. Spinoza's given name, which means "Blessed", varies among different languages. Read more on Wikipedia

Since 2007, the English Wikipedia page of Baruch Spinoza has received more than 4,528,410 page views. His biography is available in 110 different languages on Wikipedia (up from 106 in 2019). Baruch Spinoza is the 31st most popular philosopher (down from 23rd in 2019), the 5th most popular biography from Netherlands (down from 4th in 2019) and the 2nd most popular Dutch Philosopher.

Baruch Spinoza is most famous for his philosophy of pantheism, which states that God and Nature are one and the same.

Memorability Metrics

  • 4.5M

    Page Views (PV)

  • 82.22

    Historical Popularity Index (HPI)

  • 110

    Languages Editions (L)

  • 10.30

    Effective Languages (L*)

  • 4.70

    Coefficient of Variation (CV)

Page views of Baruch Spinozas by language


Among philosophers, Baruch Spinoza ranks 31 out of 1,081Before him are Erasmus, Auguste Comte, Friedrich Engels, Averroes, Heraclitus, and Parmenides. After him are Martin Heidegger, Anaximander, Al-Ghazali, Diogenes, Laozi, and David Hume.

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Among people born in 1632, Baruch Spinoza ranks 3Before him are John Locke and Johannes Vermeer. After him are Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, Jean-Baptiste Lully, Samuel von Pufendorf, Christopher Wren, Maria Leopoldine of Austria, Jean Mabillon, Francis Hyacinth, Duke of Savoy, Michael I Apafi, and Adam Frans van der Meulen. Among people deceased in 1677, Baruch Spinoza ranks 1After him are Jan van Riebeeck, Angelus Silesius, Isaac Barrow, Barbara Strozzi, Wenceslaus Hollar, Frederick VI, Margrave of Baden-Durlach, Antonio Maria Abbatini, Aert van der Neer, William Louis, Duke of Württemberg, Robert Cambert, and James Harrington.

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In Netherlands

Among people born in Netherlands, Baruch Spinoza ranks 5 out of 1,427Before him are Vincent van Gogh (1853), Rembrandt (1606), Johannes Vermeer (1632), and Erasmus (1466). After him are Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1525), Piet Mondrian (1872), Hieronymus Bosch (1450), Antonie van Leeuwenhoek (1632), Johan Cruyff (1947), Christiaan Huygens (1629), and Hugo Grotius (1583).

Among PHILOSOPHERS In Netherlands

Among philosophers born in Netherlands, Baruch Spinoza ranks 2Before him are Erasmus (1466). After him are Jacobus Arminius (1560), Rodolphus Agricola (1443), Jacob Moleschott (1822), Dirck Coornhert (1522), Thomas van Erpe (1584), and Bas van Fraassen (1941).