Max Horkheimer

1895 - 1973

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Max Horkheimer (; German: [ˈhɔɐ̯kˌhaɪmɐ]; 14 February 1895 – 7 July 1973) was a German philosopher and sociologist who was famous for his work in critical theory as a member of the Frankfurt School of social research. Horkheimer addressed authoritarianism, militarism, economic disruption, environmental crisis, and the poverty of mass culture using the philosophy of history as a framework. This became the foundation of critical theory. Read more on Wikipedia

Since 2007, the English Wikipedia page of Max Horkheimer has received more than 600,002 page views. His biography is available in 53 different languages on Wikipedia (up from 50 in 2019). Max Horkheimer is the 155th most popular philosopher, the 222nd most popular biography from Germany (down from 217th in 2019) and the 27th most popular German Philosopher.

Max Horkheimer is most famous for being one of the founders of the Frankfurt School. The Frankfurt School was a group of philosophers, sociologists, and political theorists who were critical of capitalism and the culture industry.

Memorability Metrics

  • 600k

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  • 77.36

    Historical Popularity Index (HPI)

  • 53

    Languages Editions (L)

  • 10.18

    Effective Languages (L*)

  • 2.68

    Coefficient of Variation (CV)

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Among philosophers, Max Horkheimer ranks 155 out of 1,089Before him are Adam Weishaupt, Chrysippus, Louis Althusser, Jakob Böhme, Carl Schmitt, and Mikhail Bakhtin. After him are Adi Shankara, Bodhidharma, Ernst Cassirer, Friedrich Schleiermacher, Emmanuel Levinas, and Marquis de Condorcet.

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Among people born in 1895, Max Horkheimer ranks 12Before him are Richard Sorge, Buster Keaton, Jiddu Krishnamurti, Santiago Bernabéu Yeste, Nikolai Yezhov, and Mikhail Bakhtin. After him are J. Edgar Hoover, Ernst Jünger, Paul Hindemith, Rudolph Valentino, Amin al-Husseini, and Paul Éluard. Among people deceased in 1973, Max Horkheimer ranks 16Before him are Fulgencio Batista, Pearl S. Buck, Henri Charrière, Ivan Konev, Abebe Bikila, and Walter Ulbricht. After him are Ludwig von Mises, İsmet İnönü, Paavo Nurmi, John Ford, Hans Kelsen, and Pablo Casals.

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In Germany

Among people born in Germany, Max Horkheimer ranks 222 out of 5,289Before him are Carl Schmitt (1888), Franz Marc (1880), Walter Ulbricht (1893), Isabeau of Bavaria (1370), Karl May (1842), and Kurt von Schleicher (1882). After him are Michael Ende (1929), Wilhelm Frick (1877), Eckhart Tolle (1948), Gustav Ludwig Hertz (1887), Johann Friedrich Struensee (1737), and Albert Kesselring (1885).


Among philosophers born in Germany, Max Horkheimer ranks 27Before him are Johann Friedrich Herbart (1776), Baron d'Holbach (1723), Wilhelm Dilthey (1833), Rudolf Christoph Eucken (1846), Adam Weishaupt (1748), and Carl Schmitt (1888). After him are Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten (1714), Athanasius Kircher (1602), Ferdinand Tönnies (1855), Max Scheler (1874), Max Stirner (1806), and Rudolf Carnap (1891).