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Max Horkheimer

1895 - 1973

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Max Horkheimer (; German: [ˈhɔɐ̯kˌhaɪmɐ]; 14 February 1895 – 7 July 1973) was a German philosopher and sociologist who was famous for his work in critical theory as a member of the Frankfurt School of social research. Horkheimer addressed authoritarianism, militarism, economic disruption, environmental crisis, and the poverty of mass culture using the philosophy of history as a framework. This became the foundation of critical theory. Read more on Wikipedia

Since 2007, the English Wikipedia page of Max Horkheimer has received more than 660,533 page views. His biography is available in 55 different languages on Wikipedia (up from 53 in 2019). Max Horkheimer is the 180th most popular philosopher (down from 155th in 2019), the 275th most popular biography from Germany (down from 222nd in 2019) and the 31st most popular German Philosopher.

Max Horkheimer is most famous for being one of the founders of the Frankfurt School. The Frankfurt School was a group of philosophers, sociologists, and political theorists who were critical of capitalism and the culture industry.

Memorability Metrics

  • 660k

    Page Views (PV)

  • 69.54

    Historical Popularity Index (HPI)

  • 55

    Languages Editions (L)

  • 10.26

    Effective Languages (L*)

  • 2.83

    Coefficient of Variation (CV)

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Among philosophers, Max Horkheimer ranks 180 out of 1,081Before him are Jean Buridan, Julien Offray de La Mettrie, Karl Kautsky, Solomon ibn Gabirol, José Ortega y Gasset, and Pierre Gassendi. After him are Claude Adrien Helvétius, Emmanuel Levinas, Posidonius, Hippasus, Han Fei, and Jakob Böhme.

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Among people born in 1895, Max Horkheimer ranks 15Before him are J. Edgar Hoover, Santiago Bernabéu Yeste, Wilm Hosenfeld, Nikolai Yezhov, Ernst Jünger, and Mikhail Bakhtin. After him are Semyon Timoshenko, Amin al-Husseini, Paul Hindemith, Paul Éluard, Dolores Ibárruri, and Zog I of Albania. Among people deceased in 1973, Max Horkheimer ranks 20Before him are İsmet İnönü, Walter Ulbricht, Ludwig von Mises, John Ford, Abebe Bikila, and Paavo Nurmi. After him are Anna Magnani, Henri Charrière, Pablo Casals, Gabriel Marcel, Ferdinand Schörner, and Semyon Budyonny.

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In Germany

Among people born in Germany, Max Horkheimer ranks 275 out of 6,142Before him are Ferdinand I of Romania (1865), Adolf Dassler (1900), Adolf Frederick, King of Sweden (1710), Max von Laue (1879), Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (1691), and Paul Heyse (1830). After him are Paul Ludwig Ewald von Kleist (1881), Carl Zeiss (1816), Joseph Beuys (1921), Maurice, Prince of Orange (1567), Constanze Mozart (1762), and Michael Haneke (1942).


Among philosophers born in Germany, Max Horkheimer ranks 31Before him are Herbert Marcuse (1898), Adam Weishaupt (1748), Ferdinand Tönnies (1855), Max Stirner (1806), Carl Schmitt (1888), and Max Scheler (1874). After him are Athanasius Kircher (1602), Rudolf Carnap (1891), Moses Mendelssohn (1729), Franz Brentano (1838), Hugh of Saint Victor (1096), and Ernst Bloch (1885).