Mahmud II

1785 - 1839

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Mahmud II (Ottoman Turkish: محمود ثانى‎, romanized: Mahmud-u s̠ānī, Turkish: II. Mahmut; 20 July 1785 – 1 July 1839) was the 30th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1808 until his death in 1839. His reign is recognized for the extensive administrative, military, and fiscal reforms he instituted, which culminated in the Decree of Tanzimat ("reorganization") that was carried out by his sons Abdulmejid I and Abdülaziz. Often described as "Peter the Great of Turkey", Mahmud's reforms included the 1826 abolition of the conservative Janissary corps, which removed a major obstacle to his and his successors' reforms in the Empire. Read more on Wikipedia

Since 2007, the English Wikipedia page of Mahmud II has received more than 914,616 page views. His biography is available in 72 different languages on Wikipedia (up from 67 in 2019). Mahmud II is the 232nd most popular politician (down from 230th in 2019), the 40th most popular biography from Turkey and the 22nd most popular Turkish Politician.

Mahmud II was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1808 to 1839. He is most famous for his modernization of the empire.

Memorability Metrics

  • 910k

    Page Views (PV)

  • 82.46

    Historical Popularity Index (HPI)

  • 72

    Languages Editions (L)

  • 10.06

    Effective Languages (L*)

  • 3.26

    Coefficient of Variation (CV)

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Among politicians, Mahmud II ranks 232 out of 15,710. Before him are Suleiman II, Harald V of Norway, Ferdinand II of Aragon, Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor, Christina, Queen of Sweden, and Charles IX of France. After him are Lech Wałęsa, Sulla, Joe Biden, Olof Palme, Nicholas I of Russia, and Konrad Adenauer.

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Among people born in 1785, Mahmud II ranks 1After him are Louis XVII of France, Jacob Grimm, Karl Drais, Alessandro Manzoni, Lin Zexu, Claude-Louis Navier, Bettina von Arnim, Friedrich Wilhelm, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, Thomas De Quincey, Pierre Louis Dulong, and Prince Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Among people deceased in 1839, Mahmud II ranks 1After him are Frederick VI of Denmark, Friedrich Mohs, Caroline Bonaparte, Fernando Sor, Pehr Henrik Ling, William, Duke of Nassau, William Smith, Ranjit Singh, Princess Marie of Orléans, Charlotte Bonaparte, and Milan Obrenović II, Prince of Serbia.

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In Turkey

Among people born in Turkey, Mahmud II ranks 40 out of 1,128. Before him are John Chrysostom (349), Anaximander (-610), Margaret the Virgin (292), Recep Tayyip Erdoğan (1954), Suleiman II (1642), and Basil of Caesarea (329). After him are Mehmed I (1386), Mehmed VI (1861), Julian (331), Anaxagoras (-500), Epictetus (50), and Croesus (-596).


Among politicians born in Turkey, Mahmud II ranks 22Before him are Mehmed IV (1642), Ibrahim of the Ottoman Empire (1615), Heraclius (575), Osman II (1604), Recep Tayyip Erdoğan (1954), and Suleiman II (1642). After him are Mehmed I (1386), Mehmed VI (1861), Julian (331), Croesus (-596), Constantine XI Palaiologos (1404), and Ahmed II (1643).