Cesare Beccaria

1738 - 1794

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Cesare Bonesana di Beccaria, Marquis of Gualdrasco and Villareggio, (Italian: [ˈtʃeːzare bekkaˈriːa, ˈtʃɛː-]; 15 March 1738 – 28 November 1794) was an Italian criminologist, jurist, philosopher, economist, and politician who is widely considered one of the greatest thinkers of the Age of Enlightenment. He is well remembered for his treatise On Crimes and Punishments (1764), which condemned torture and the death penalty, and was a founding work in the field of penology and the classical school of criminology. Read more on Wikipedia

Since 2007, the English Wikipedia page of Cesare Beccaria has received more than 1,110,276 page views. His biography is available in 44 different languages on Wikipedia (up from 43 in 2019). Cesare Beccaria is the 169th most popular philosopher (down from 162nd in 2019), the 433rd most popular biography from Italy (down from 385th in 2019) and the 17th most popular Italian Philosopher.

Cesare Beccaria is most famous for his essay "On Crimes and Punishments" in which he argues that the severity of punishments should be proportionate to the severity of the crime.

Memorability Metrics

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    Page Views (PV)

  • 69.73

    Historical Popularity Index (HPI)

  • 44

    Languages Editions (L)

  • 8.72

    Effective Languages (L*)

  • 2.72

    Coefficient of Variation (CV)


Among philosophers, Cesare Beccaria ranks 169 out of 1,267Before him are Kabir, Han Fei, Jean Buridan, Jean Baudrillard, Jiddu Krishnamurti, and Max Horkheimer. After him are Athanasius Kircher, Al-Ash'ari, Mikhail Bakhtin, Claude Adrien Helvétius, Xun Kuang, and Ernest Renan.

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Among people born in 1738, Cesare Beccaria ranks 4Before him are George III of the United Kingdom, William Herschel, and Joseph-Ignace Guillotin. After him are Archduchess Maria Anna of Austria, Túpac Amaru II, Albert Casimir, Duke of Teschen, Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis, Ethan Allen, Thomas Abbt, Arthur Phillip, and Jacques François Dugommier. Among people deceased in 1794, Cesare Beccaria ranks 5Before him are Antoine Lavoisier, Maximilien Robespierre, Georges Danton, and Louis Antoine de Saint-Just. After him are Camille Desmoulins, Marquis de Condorcet, Alexandre de Beauharnais, Edward Gibbon, Jacques Hébert, Élisabeth of France, and André Chénier.

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In Italy

Among people born in Italy, Cesare Beccaria ranks 433 out of 5,161Before him are Andrea Doria (1466), Giovanni Trapattoni (1939), Pope Martin I (590), Pietro Badoglio (1871), Pope Fabian (200), and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (-89). After him are Matteo Ricci (1552), Gaius Cassius Longinus (-87), Pope Zachary (679), Pope Hormisdas (450), Pope Boniface VI (800), and Renzo Piano (1937).


Among philosophers born in Italy, Cesare Beccaria ranks 17Before him are Boethius (480), Tommaso Campanella (1568), Bonaventure (1221), Marsilio Ficino (1433), Giambattista Vico (1668), and Hippasus (-600). After him are Benedetto Croce (1866), Julius Evola (1898), Marsilius of Padua (1275), Giorgio Agamben (1942), Theano (-600), and Alcmaeon of Croton (-510).