Baruch Spinoza

1632 - 1677

Photo of Baruch Spinoza

Icon of person Baruch Spinoza

Baruch (de) Spinoza (24 November 1632 – 21 February 1677), also known under his Latinized pen name Benedictus de Spinoza, was a philosopher of Portuguese-Jewish origin. As a forerunner of the Age of Reason, Spinoza significantly influenced modern biblical criticism, 17th-century Rationalism, and contemporary conceptions of the self and the universe, establishing himself as one of the most important and radical philosophers of the early modern period. He was influenced by Stoicism, Maimonides, Niccolò Machiavelli, René Descartes, Thomas Hobbes, and a variety of heterodox Christian thinkers of his day.Spinoza was born in Amsterdam to a marrano family that had left Portugal for a more tolerant Amsterdam. Read more on Wikipedia

Since 2007, the English Wikipedia page of Baruch Spinoza has received more than 5,579,426 page views. His biography is available in 114 different languages on Wikipedia (up from 110 in 2019). Baruch Spinoza is the 33rd most popular philosopher (down from 31st in 2019), the 5th most popular biography from Netherlands and the 2nd most popular Dutch Philosopher.

Baruch Spinoza is most famous for his philosophy of pantheism, which states that God and Nature are one and the same.

Memorability Metrics

  • 5.6M

    Page Views (PV)

  • 81.32

    Historical Popularity Index (HPI)

  • 114

    Languages Editions (L)

  • 9.57

    Effective Languages (L*)

  • 5.14

    Coefficient of Variation (CV)

Page views of Baruch Spinozas by language

Over the past year Baruch Spinoza has had the most page views in the with 795,856 views, followed by Spanish (343,146), and French (242,583). In terms of yearly growth of page views the top 3 wikpedia editions are Marathi (198.04%), Bashkir (87.72%), and Korean (79.01%)


Among philosophers, Baruch Spinoza ranks 33 out of 1,267Before him are Auguste Comte, Thomas Hobbes, Al-Ghazali, Erasmus, Diogenes, and Parmenides. After him are Anaximander, Al-Farabi, Martin Heidegger, Maria Montessori, Plutarch, and Søren Kierkegaard.

Most Popular Philosophers in Wikipedia

Go to all Rankings


Among people born in 1632, Baruch Spinoza ranks 3Before him are John Locke, and Johannes Vermeer. After him are Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, Jean-Baptiste Lully, Samuel von Pufendorf, Christopher Wren, Jean Mabillon, Maria Leopoldine of Austria, Francis Hyacinth, Duke of Savoy, Michael I Apafi, and Adam Frans van der Meulen. Among people deceased in 1677, Baruch Spinoza ranks 1After him are Jan van Riebeeck, Isaac Barrow, Angelus Silesius, Barbara Strozzi, Wenceslaus Hollar, Antonio Maria Abbatini, Frederick VI, Margrave of Baden-Durlach, William Louis, Duke of Württemberg, Aert van der Neer, William, Margrave of Baden-Baden, and James Harrington.

Others Born in 1632

Go to all Rankings

Others Deceased in 1677

Go to all Rankings

In Netherlands

Among people born in Netherlands, Baruch Spinoza ranks 5 out of 1,646Before him are Vincent van Gogh (1853), Rembrandt (1606), Johannes Vermeer (1632), and Erasmus (1466). After him are Piet Mondrian (1872), Johan Cruyff (1947), Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1525), Hieronymus Bosch (1450), Antonie van Leeuwenhoek (1632), Christiaan Huygens (1629), and Hugo Grotius (1583).

Among PHILOSOPHERS In Netherlands

Among philosophers born in Netherlands, Baruch Spinoza ranks 2Before him are Erasmus (1466). After him are Jacobus Arminius (1560), Rodolphus Agricola (1443), Jacob Moleschott (1822), Dirck Coornhert (1522), Bas van Fraassen (1941), Marsilius of Inghen (1335), and Thomas van Erpe (1584).