Abdul Hamid II

1842 - 1918

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Abdulhamid or Abdul Hamid II (Ottoman Turkish: عبد الحميد ثانی, romanized: Abd ul-Hamid-i s̱ānī; Turkish: II. Abdülhamid; 21 September 1842 – 10 February 1918) was the 34th sultan of the Ottoman Empire, from 1876 to 1909, and the last sultan to exert effective control over the fracturing state. He oversaw a period of decline with rebellions (particularly in the Balkans), and presided over an unsuccessful war with the Russian Empire (1877–78), the loss of Egypt and Cyprus from Ottoman control, followed by a successful war against the Kingdom of Greece in 1897, though Ottoman gains were tempered by subsequent Western European intervention. Elevated to power in the wake of Young Ottoman coups, he promulgated the Ottoman Empire's first constitution during the Tersane Conference, a sign of the progressive thinking that marked his early rule. Read more on Wikipedia

Since 2007, the English Wikipedia page of Abdul Hamid II has received more than 4,700,591 page views. His biography is available in 87 different languages on Wikipedia (up from 82 in 2019). Abdul Hamid II is the 150th most popular politician (down from 136th in 2019), the 24th most popular biography from Türkiye (up from 27th in 2019) and the 12th most popular Politician.

Abdul Hamid II was the last Caliph of the Ottoman Empire. He is most famous for being the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1876-1909.

Memorability Metrics

  • 4.7M

    Page Views (PV)

  • 79.23

    Historical Popularity Index (HPI)

  • 87

    Languages Editions (L)

  • 8.82

    Effective Languages (L*)

  • 3.97

    Coefficient of Variation (CV)


Among politicians, Abdul Hamid II ranks 150 out of 19,576Before him are Simón Bolívar, Al Gore, Augusto Pinochet, Hatshepsut, Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, and Pol Pot. After him are Xerxes I, Alexander I of Russia, Hulagu Khan, Shimon Peres, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, and Akbar.

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Among people born in 1842, Abdul Hamid II ranks 1After him are William James, Peter Kropotkin, Stéphane Mallarmé, Jules Massenet, Alfred Marshall, Karl May, John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh, Dominic Savio, Josef Breuer, Camille Flammarion, and Paul Lafargue. Among people deceased in 1918, Abdul Hamid II ranks 3Before him are Nicholas II of Russia, and Gustav Klimt. After him are Gavrilo Princip, Claude Debussy, Manfred von Richthofen, Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna of Russia, Mehmed V, Guillaume Apollinaire, Egon Schiele, Grand Duchess Olga Nikolaevna of Russia, and Georg Cantor.

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In Türkiye

Among people born in Türkiye, Abdul Hamid II ranks 24 out of 1,347Before him are Strabo (-64), Murad IV (1612), Mehmed III (1566), Murad I (1326), Murad II (1404), and Basil of Caesarea (329). After him are Recep Tayyip Erdoğan (1954), Luke the Evangelist (31), Mustafa I (1591), Orhan (1288), Ibrahim of the Ottoman Empire (1615), and Mehmed IV (1642).

Among POLITICIANS In Türkiye

Among politicians born in Türkiye, Abdul Hamid II ranks 12Before him are Selim I (1470), Murad III (1546), Murad IV (1612), Mehmed III (1566), Murad I (1326), and Murad II (1404). After him are Recep Tayyip Erdoğan (1954), Mustafa I (1591), Orhan (1288), Ibrahim of the Ottoman Empire (1615), Mehmed IV (1642), and Osman II (1604).