The following people are considered by Pantheon to be the top 10 most legendary Mongolian Politicians of all time. This list of famous Mongolian Politicians is sorted by HPI (Historical Popularity Index), a metric that aggregates information on a biography’s online popularity. Visit the rankings page to view the entire list of Mongolian Politicians.
With an HPI of 83.71, Batu Khan is the most famous Mongolian Politician. His biography has been translated into 67 different languages on wikipedia.
Batu Khan (c. 1205–1255), also known as Sain Khan (Mongolian: Good Khan) and Tsar Batu, was a Mongol ruler and founder of the Golden Horde, a division of the Mongol Empire. Batu was a son of Jochi and grandson of Genghis Khan. His ulus was the chief state of the Golden Horde, which ruled Rus', Volga Bulgaria, Cumania, and the Caucasus for around 250 years, after also destroying the armies of Poland and Hungary. Batu or Bat literally means "firm" in the Mongolian language. After the deaths of Genghis Khan's sons, he became the most respected prince, called agha ("elder brother"), in the Mongol Empire.
With an HPI of 82.62, Hulagu Khan is the 2nd most famous Mongolian Politician. His biography has been translated into 70 different languages.
Hulagu Khan, also known as Hülegü or Hulegu (Mongolian: Хүлэгү/ᠬᠦᠯᠡᠭᠦ, romanized: Hu’legu’/Qülegü, lit. 'Surplus'; Chagatay: ہلاکو; Persian: هولاکو خان, Hulâgu xân; Arabic: هولاكو خان/ هَلَاوُن; Chinese: 旭烈兀; pinyin: Xùlièwù [ɕû.ljê.û]; c. 1215 – 8 February 1265), was a Mongol ruler who conquered much of Western Asia. Son of Tolui and the Keraite princess Sorghaghtani Beki, he was a grandson of Genghis Khan and brother of Ariq Böke, Möngke Khan, and Kublai Khan. Hulagu's army greatly expanded the southwestern portion of the Mongol Empire, founding the Ilkhanate of Persia, a precursor to the eventual Safavid dynasty, and then the modern state of Iran. Under Hulagu's leadership, the siege of Baghdad (1258) destroyed Baghdad's standing in the Islamic Golden Age and weakened Damascus, causing a shift of Islamic influence to the Mamluk Sultanate in Cairo and ended the Abbasid Dynasty.
With an HPI of 81.20, Tolui is the 3rd most famous Mongolian Politician. His biography has been translated into 46 different languages.
Tolui (c.1191–1232) was the fourth son of Genghis Khan by his chief khatun Börte. His ulus, or territorial inheritance, at his father's death in 1227 was the homelands in Mongolia, and he also served as civil administrator until 1229, the time it took to confirm Ögedei as second Great Khan of the Mongol Empire (1206–1368). Before that he had served with distinction in the campaigns against the Jin dynasty, the Western Xia and the Khwarezmid Empire, where he was instrumental in the capture and massacre at Merv and Nishapur. He is a direct ancestor of most of the Ilkhanids. Tolui never used the title of Khagan himself; neither Genghis Khan nor his immediate three successors would ever use any reigning titles unlike the neighboring Chinese dynasties in the south. Tolui was awarded the title of Khagan by his son Möngke and was given a temple name (Chinese: 睿宗; pinyin: Ruìzōng; Wade–Giles: Jui-Tsung) by his other son Kublai, when he established the Yuan dynasty a few decades later.
With an HPI of 78.26, Modu Chanyu is the 4th most famous Mongolian Politician. Her biography has been translated into 34 different languages.
Modun, Maodun, Modu (simplified Chinese: 冒顿单于; traditional Chinese: 冒頓單于; pinyin: Mòdún Chányú, c. 234 – c. 174 BCE) was the son of Touman and the founder of the empire of the Xiongnu. He came to power by ordering his men to kill his father in 209 BCE.Modu ruled from 209 BCE to 174 BCE. He was a military leader under his father Touman, and later Chanyu of the Xiongnu Empire, situated in modern-day Mongolia. He secured the throne and established a powerful Xiongnu Empire by successfully unifying the tribes of the Mongolian-Manchurian grassland in response to the loss of Xiongnu pasture lands to invading Qin forces commanded by Meng Tian in 215 BCE. While Modu rode and then furthered the wave of militarization and effectively centralized Xiongnu power, the Qin quickly fell into disarray with the death of the first emperor in 210, leaving Modu a free hand to expand his Xiongnu Empire into one of the largest of his time. The eastern border stretched as far as the Liao River, the western borders of the empire reached the Pamir Mountains, whilst the northern border reached Lake Baikal. Modu was succeeded by his son Laoshang.
With an HPI of 75.87, Börte is the 5th most famous Mongolian Politician. Her biography has been translated into 32 different languages.
Börte (simply Borte, also Börte Üjin; Cyrillic: Бөртэ үжин; c. 1161–1230) was the first wife of Temüjin, who became Genghis Khan, the founder of the Mongol Empire. Börte became the head of the first Court of Genghis Khan, and Grand Empress of his Empire. Little is known about the details of her early life, but she was betrothed to Genghis at a young age, married at seventeen, and then kidnapped by a rival tribe. Her husband’s daring rescue of her may have been one of the key events that started him on his path to becoming a conqueror. She gave birth to four sons and five daughters, who, along with their own descendants, were the key bloodline that further expanded the Mongol Empire.
With an HPI of 75.47, Ariq Böke is the 6th most famous Mongolian Politician. His biography has been translated into 32 different languages.
Ariq Böke (after 1219–1266), the components of his name also spelled Arigh, Arik and Bukha, Buka (Mongolian: Аригбөх; Chinese: 阿里不哥), was the seventh and youngest son of Tolui and a grandson of Genghis Khan. After the death of his brother the Great Khan Möngke, Ariq Böke claimed the title of the Great Khan of the Mongol Empire and briefly took power while his brothers Kublai (more commonly known as Kublai Khan) and Hulagu (more commonly known as Hulagu Khan) were absent from the Mongolian homeland. When Kublai returned for an election in 1260, rival factions could not agree, and elected both claimants, Kublai and Ariq Böke, to the throne, resulting in the Toluid Civil War that fragmented the Mongol Empire. Ariq Böke was supported by the traditionalists of the Mongol Empire, while his brother Kublai was supported by the senior princes of North China and Manchuria.
With an HPI of 74.99, Berke is the 7th most famous Mongolian Politician. His biography has been translated into 37 different languages.
Berke Khan (died 1266) (also Birkai; Mongolian: Бэрх хаан, Tatar: Бәркә хан) was a grandson of Genghis Khan and a Mongolian military commander and ruler of the Golden Horde (division of the Mongol Empire) who effectively consolidated the power of the Blue Horde and White Horde from 1257 to 1266. He succeeded his brother Batu Khan of the Blue Horde (West) and was responsible for the first official establishment of Islam in a khanate of the Mongol Empire. He allied with the Egyptian Mamluks against another Mongol khanate based in Persia, the Ilkhanate. Berke also supported Ariq Böke against Kublai in the Toluid Civil War, but did not intervene militarily in the war because he was occupied in his own war against his cousin, Hulagu Khan.
With an HPI of 74.41, Abaqa Khan is the 8th most famous Mongolian Politician. His biography has been translated into 34 different languages.
Abaqa Khan (February 1234 – 4 April 1282, Mongolian: Абаха/Абага хан (Khalkha Cyrillic), ᠠᠪᠠᠬᠠ ᠬᠠᠨ (Traditional script), "paternal uncle", also transliterated Abaġa), was the second Mongol ruler (Ilkhan) of the Ilkhanate. The son of Hulagu Khan and Lady Yesünčin. He was the grandson of Tolui and reigned from 1265 to 1282 and was succeeded by his brother Ahmed Tekuder. Much of Abaqa's reign was consumed with civil wars in the Mongol Empire, such as those between the Ilkhanate and the northern khanate of the Golden Horde. Abaqa also engaged in unsuccessful attempts at military invasion of Syria, including the Second Battle of Homs.
With an HPI of 73.93, Toghon Temür is the 9th most famous Mongolian Politician. His biography has been translated into 37 different languages.
Toghon Temür (Mongolian: Тогоонтөмөр, Togoontömör; Chinese: 妥懽貼睦爾; pinyin: tuohuantiemu'er; 25 May 1320 – 23 May 1370), also known by the temple name Huizong (Chinese: 惠宗) bestowed by the Northern Yuan dynasty in Mongolia and by the posthumous name Emperor Shun (Chinese: 順帝; Wade–Giles: Shun-ti) bestowed by the Hongwu Emperor of the Ming dynasty China, was a son of Khutughtu Khan Kusala who ruled as emperor of the Yuan dynasty. Apart from Emperor of China, he is also considered the last Khagan of the Mongol Empire.During the last years of his reign, the Yuan dynasty was overthrown by the Red Turban Rebellion, which established the Ming dynasty, although the Mongols remained in control of the Mongolian Plateau. As such, he was the final monarch of the Yuan dynasty and the first ruler of the Northern Yuan dynasty. Emperor Huizong was a Buddhist student of the Karmapas (heads of the Karma Kagyu school of Tibetan Buddhism) and is considered a previous incarnation of the Tai Situpas. He also notably invited the Jonang savant Dölpopa Shérab Gyeltsen to teach him, but was rebuffed.
With an HPI of 72.40, Damdin Sükhbaatar is the 10th most famous Mongolian Politician. His biography has been translated into 29 different languages.
Damdin Sükhbaatar (Mongolian: Дамдины Сүхбаатар, Damdinii Sykebaatar, ᠳᠠᠮᠳᠢᠨ ᠤᠰᠦᠬᠡᠪᠠᠭᠠᠲᠤᠷ; February 2, 1893 – February 20, 1923) was a founding member of the Mongolian People's Party and leader of the Mongolian partisan army that took Khüree during the Outer Mongolian Revolution of 1921. For his part in the Outer Mongolian revolution of 1921, he was enshrined as the "Father of Mongolia's Revolution".
Pantheon has 38 people classified as politicians born between 234 BC and 1986. Of these 38, 15 (39.47%) of them are still alive today. The most famous living politicians include Khaltmaagiin Battulga, Punsalmaagiin Ochirbat, and Nambaryn Enkhbayar. The most famous deceased politicians include Batu Khan, Hulagu Khan, and Tolui. As of October 2020, 2 new politicians have been added to Pantheon including Esen Taishi and Jambyn Batmönkh.
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Which Politicians were alive at the same time? This visualization shows the lifespans of the 5 most globally memorable Politicians since 1700.