Max Ernst

1891 - 1976

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Max Ernst (2 April 1891 – 1 April 1976) was a German (naturalised American in 1948 and French in 1958) painter, sculptor, printmaker, graphic artist, and poet. A prolific artist, Ernst was a primary pioneer of the Dada movement and Surrealism in Europe. He had no formal artistic training, but his experimental attitude toward the making of art resulted in his invention of frottage—a technique that uses pencil rubbings of textured objects and relief surfaces to create images—and grattage, an analogous technique in which paint is scraped across canvas to reveal the imprints of the objects placed beneath. Read more on Wikipedia

Since 2007, the English Wikipedia page of Max Ernst has received more than 2,333,892 page views. His biography is available in 62 different languages on Wikipedia. Max Ernst is the 96th most popular painter (down from 89th in 2019), the 198th most popular biography from Germany (down from 174th in 2019) and the 5th most popular German Painter.

Max Ernst was a German painter and graphic artist. He is most famous for his surrealistic paintings.

Memorability Metrics

  • 2.3M

    Page Views (PV)

  • 71.49

    Historical Popularity Index (HPI)

  • 62

    Languages Editions (L)

  • 8.88

    Effective Languages (L*)

  • 3.45

    Coefficient of Variation (CV)


Among painters, Max Ernst ranks 96 out of 2,023Before him are Paolo Uccello, Rogier van der Weyden, Francis Picabia, Oskar Kokoschka, Paul Signac, and Andrei Rublev. After him are Mark Rothko, Antonio da Correggio, Lisa del Giocondo, Filippo Lippi, Jean-Antoine Watteau, and Sofonisba Anguissola.

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Among people born in 1891, Max Ernst ranks 8Before him are Erwin Rommel, Antonio Gramsci, B. R. Ambedkar, Sergei Prokofiev, Mikhail Bulgakov, and Walter Model. After him are Nelly Sachs, Edith Stein, James Chadwick, John Howard Northrop, Pär Lagerkvist, and Henry Miller. Among people deceased in 1976, Max Ernst ranks 10Before him are Werner Heisenberg, Howard Hughes, Alvar Aalto, Luchino Visconti, Zhou Enlai, and Fritz Lang. After him are Jean Gabin, Bernard Montgomery, André Malraux, Henrik Dam, Ulrike Meinhof, and Man Ray.

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In Germany

Among people born in Germany, Max Ernst ranks 198 out of 7,253Before him are Oswald Spengler (1880), Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor (1282), Jacob Grimm (1785), Eduard Buchner (1860), Gottlob Frege (1848), and Hermann von Helmholtz (1821). After him are Wilhelm Dilthey (1833), Wilhelm, German Crown Prince (1882), Nico (1938), Conrad III of Germany (1093), Jupp Heynckes (1945), and Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor (1086).

Among PAINTERS In Germany

Among painters born in Germany, Max Ernst ranks 5Before him are Albrecht Dürer (1471), Peter Paul Rubens (1577), Caspar David Friedrich (1774), and Lucas Cranach the Elder (1472). After him are Matthias Grünewald (1480), Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (1880), Hans Memling (1435), Franz Marc (1880), Hans von Aachen (1552), Albrecht Altdorfer (1480), and Emil Nolde (1867).