The following people are considered by Pantheon to be the top 10 most legendary Peruvian Politicians of all time. This list of famous Peruvian Politicians is sorted by HPI (Historical Popularity Index), a metric that aggregates information on a biography’s online popularity. Visit the rankings page to view the entire list of Peruvian Politicians.
With an HPI of 80.37, Javier Pérez de Cuéllar is the most famous Peruvian Politician. His biography has been translated into 76 different languages on wikipedia.
Javier Felipe Ricardo Pérez de Cuéllar de la Guerra (; Spanish: [xaˈβjeɾ ˈperez ðe ˈkweʝaɾ]; 19 January 1920 – 4 March 2020) was a Peruvian diplomat and politician who served as the fifth Secretary-General of the United Nations from 1982 to 1991. He later served as Prime Minister of Peru from 2000 to 2001. Pérez de Cuéllar was a member of the Club of Madrid, a group of former heads of state and government, and the Inter-American Dialogue. A centenarian at the time of his death in 2020, Pérez de Cuéllar is both the longest-lived former Peruvian prime minister and United Nations secretary-general.
With an HPI of 79.63, Atahualpa is the 2nd most famous Peruvian Politician. His biography has been translated into 60 different languages.
Atahualpa (), Atawallpa (Quechua), also Atabalica, Atahuallpa, Atabalipa (c. 1502 – 26 July 1533) was the last Inca Emperor. After defeating his brother, Atahualpa became very briefly the last Sapa Inca (sovereign emperor) of the Inca Empire (Tawantinsuyu) before the Spanish conquest ended his reign. Before the Inca Emperor Huayna Capac died in Quito in 1524 (possibly due to smallpox, a disease brought by Europeans), he had appointed his son Ninan Cuyochi as his successor. Ninan died of the same disease. Huáscar, another son of Huayna, was named Sapa Inca by the Cusquenian nobles, and he appointed his brother Atahualpa as governor of Quito. The Inca Civil War began in 1529 when Huáscar declared war on Atahualpa, for fear that he would try to carry out a coup d'état against him. Atahualpa became Inca emperor in May 1532 after he had defeated and imprisoned Huáscar and massacred any pretenders to the throne. The Spaniard Francisco Pizarro captured Atahualpa in November 1532 and used him to control the Inca Empire. While imprisoned by the Spaniards, Atahualpa gave orders to kill Huáscar in Jauja, thinking Huáscar would use the Spaniards as allies to regain his throne.The Spanish eventually executed Atahualpa, effectively ending the empire. A succession of emperors, who led the Inca resistance against the invading Spaniards, claimed the title of Sapa Inca as rulers of the Neo-Inca State, but the empire began to disintegrate after Atahualpa's death.
With an HPI of 76.69, Alberto Fujimori is the 3rd most famous Peruvian Politician. His biography has been translated into 64 different languages.
Alberto Kenya Fujimori Inomoto (Spanish: [alˈβeɾto fuxiˈmoɾi] or [fu(ɟ)ʝiˈmoɾi]; Japanese: 藤森謙也, born 28 July 1938) is a Peruvian former engineer who led the nation as the President of Peru from 28 July 1990 until his downfall on 22 November 2000. Frequently described as a dictator, he remains a controversial figure in Peruvian politics; his government is credited with the creation of Fujimorism, defeating the Shining Path insurgency and restoring Peru's macroeconomic stability, though Fujimori ended his presidency by fleeing Peru for Japan amid a major scandal involving corruption and human rights abuses. Even amid his prosecution in 2008 for crimes against humanity relating to his presidency, two-thirds of Peruvians polled voiced approval for his leadership in that period.A Peruvian of Japanese descent, Fujimori took refuge in Japan when faced with charges of corruption in 2000. On arriving in Japan, he attempted to resign his presidency via fax, but his resignation was rejected by Congress, which preferred to remove him from office by the process of impeachment by a 62-9 vote. Wanted in Peru on charges of corruption and human rights abuses, Fujimori maintained a self-imposed exile until his arrest while visiting Chile in November 2005. He was extradited to face criminal charges in Peru on 22 September 2007. In December 2007, Fujimori was convicted of ordering an illegal search and seizure and was sentenced to six years imprisonment. The Supreme Court upheld the decision upon his appeal. In April 2009, Fujimori was convicted of human rights violations and sentenced to 25 years imprisonment for his role in kidnappings and murders by the Grupo Colina death squad during his government's battle against leftist guerrillas in the 1990s. The verdict, delivered by a three-judge panel, marked the first time that an elected head of state has been extradited to his home country, tried, and convicted of human rights violations. Fujimori was specifically found guilty of murder, bodily harm and two cases of kidnapping.In July 2009, Fujimori was sentenced to seven and a half years imprisonment for embezzlement after he admitted to giving $15 million from the Peruvian treasury to his intelligence service chief, Vladimiro Montesinos. Two months later, he pleaded guilty in a fourth trial to bribery and received an additional six-year term. Transparency International considered the money embezzled by Fujimori to be the seventh-most for a head of government active within 1984–2004. Under Peruvian law, all the sentences must run concurrently; thus, the maximum length of imprisonment remained 25 years.In December 2017, President Pedro Pablo Kuczynski granted the 79-year-old Fujimori a humanitarian pardon. The pardon was overturned by Peru's Supreme Court on 3 October 2018 and Fujimori was ordered back to prison. On 23 January 2019, Fujimori was sent back to prison to complete his sentence with his pardon formally being annulled three weeks later on 13 February 2019.
With an HPI of 75.97, Túpac Amaru is the 4th most famous Peruvian Politician. His biography has been translated into 36 different languages.
Túpac Amaru (1545 – 24 September 1572) was the last monarch (Sapa Inca) of the Neo-Inca State, the remnants of the Inca Empire in Vilcabamba, Peru. He was executed by the Spanish following a months-long pursuit after the fall of the last stronghold of the Neo-Inca State.: 11 The name is also spelled: Tupac, Topa, Tupaq, Thupaq, Thupa or other similar variants and Amaro instead of Amaru. It comes from Quechua Thupaq, "Royal" or "Shining" and Amaru, "Snake" (or a mythological snake-like being).
With an HPI of 74.76, Pachacuti is the 5th most famous Peruvian Politician. His biography has been translated into 38 different languages.
Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui (Quechua: Pachakutiq Inka Yupanki) was the ninth Sapa Inca (1418–1471/1472) of the Kingdom of Cusco which he transformed into the Inca Empire (Quechua: Tawantinsuyu). Most archaeologists now believe that the famous Inca site of Machu Picchu was built as an estate for Pachacuti.In Quechua Pachakutiq means "reformer of the world", and Yupanki means "with honor". During his reign, Cusco grew from a hamlet into an empire that could compete with, and eventually overtake, the Chimú. He began an era of conquest that, within three generations, expanded the Inca dominion from the valley of Cusco to nearly the whole of western South America. According to chronicler Garcilaso de la Vega, Pachacuti created the Inti Raymi to celebrate the new year in the Andes of the Southern Hemisphere. Pachacuti is often linked to the origin and expansion of the Inti Sun Cult.
With an HPI of 74.28, Manco Cápac is the 6th most famous Peruvian Politician. His biography has been translated into 34 different languages.
Manco Cápac (Quechua: Manqu Qhapaq, "the royal founder"), also known as Manco Inca and Ayar Manco was, according to some historians, the first governor and founder of the Inca civilization in Cusco, possibly in the early 13th century. He is also a main figure of Inca mythology, being the protagonist of the two best known legends about the origin of the Inca, both of them connecting him to the foundation of Cusco. His main wife was his older sister, Mama Uqllu, also the mother of his son and successor Sinchi Ruq'a. Even though his figure is mentioned in several chronicles, his actual existence remains uncertain.
With an HPI of 71.34, Huáscar is the 7th most famous Peruvian Politician. His biography has been translated into 32 different languages.
Huáscar Inca (; Quechua: Waskar Inka; 1503–1532) also Guazcar was Sapa Inca of the Inca Empire from 1527 to 1532. He succeeded his father, Huayna Capac and his brother Ninan Cuyochi, both of whom died of smallpox while campaigning near Quito.: 112, 117–119
With an HPI of 70.67, Pedro Pablo Kuczynski is the 8th most famous Peruvian Politician. His biography has been translated into 43 different languages.
Pedro Pablo Kuczynski Godard (Spanish: [kuˈtʃinski ɣoˈðarð]; born 3 October 1938), also known simply as PPK (Spanish: [pepeˈka]), is a Peruvian economist, politician and public administrator who served as President of Peru from 2016 to 2018. He served as the Prime Minister of Peru and Minister of Economy and Finance during the presidency of Alejandro Toledo. Kuczynski resigned from the presidency on 23 March 2018, following a successful impeachment vote and days before a probable conviction vote. Since 10 April 2019 he has been in pretrial detention, due to an ongoing investigation on corruption, money laundering, and connections to Odebrecht, a public works company accused of paying bribes.Kuczynski was born in the Miraflores District of Lima to a Polish Jewish father and a Swiss mother of French descent. Kuczynski's parents fled from Germany after the Nazis came to power. Kuczynski worked in the United States before entering Peruvian politics. He held positions at both the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund before being designated as the general manager of Peru's Central Reserve Bank. He later served as Minister of Energy and Mines in the early 1980s under President Fernando Belaúnde Terry, and as Minister of Economy and Finance and Prime Minister under President Alejandro Toledo in the 2000s. Kuczynski was a presidential candidate in the 2011 presidential election, placing third. His opponents Ollanta Humala and Keiko Fujimori went on to the 5 June 2011 runoff election, in which Humala was elected. Kuczynski went on to stand in the 2016 election, where he narrowly defeated Fujimori in the second round. He was sworn in as president on 28 July 2016. Kuczynski held U.S. citizenship until November 2015; he renounced it to be able to run for Peru's presidency.On 15 December 2017, the Congress of Peru, which was controlled by the opposition Popular Force, initiated impeachment proceedings against Kuczynski, after he was accused of lying about receiving payments from a scandal-hit Brazilian construction firm Odebrecht in the mid-2000s. However, on 21 December 2017, the Peruvian congress lacked the majority of votes needed to impeach Kuczynski. After further scandals and facing a second impeachment vote, Kuczynski resigned the presidency on 21 March 2018 following the release of videos showing alleged acts of vote buying, presenting his resignation to the Council of Ministers. He was succeeded as president by his First Vice President Martín Vizcarra. On 28 April 2019, Kuczynski was sentenced to three years of house arrest due to poor health while under investigation for allegedly taking bribes from Odebrecht.Kuczynski is a polyglot. Aside from his native Spanish, Kuczynski also speaks English and French fluently, and is proficient in German.
With an HPI of 70.35, Manco Inca Yupanqui is the 9th most famous Peruvian Politician. His biography has been translated into 28 different languages.
Manco Inca Yupanqui (c. 1515 – c. 1544) (Manqu Inka Yupanki in Quechua) was the founder and monarch (Sapa Inca) of the independent Neo-Inca State in Vilcabamba, although he was originally a puppet Inca Emperor installed by the Spaniards. He was also known as "Manco II" and "Manco Cápac II" ("Manqu Qhapaq II"). He was one of the sons of Huayna Capac and a younger brother of Huascar.: 150
With an HPI of 70.19, Viracocha Inca is the 10th most famous Peruvian Politician. His biography has been translated into 27 different languages.
Viracocha (in hispanicized spelling) or Wiraqucha (Quechua, the name of a god) was the eighth Sapa Inca of the Kingdom of Cusco (beginning around 1410) and the third of the Hanan dynasty. He was not the son of Yawar Waqaq; however, it was presented as such because he belonged to the same dynasty as his predecessor: the Hanan. His wife's name was Mama Runtucaya, and their sons included Inca Rocca, Tupac Yupanqui, Pachacuti and Ccapac Yupanqui. His original name was Hatun Tupaq Inca, but was named Viracocha after seeing visions of the god in Urcos. With Ccuri-chulpa, he had two additional sons, Inca Urco and Inca Socso.: 54–57 Events in Viracocha Inka's life have been recorded by several Spanish writers. The source closest to the original indigenous accounts comes from Juan de Betanzos, a Spanish commoner who rose to prominence by marrying an Inka princess and becoming the foremost translator for the colonial government of Cusco. Traditional oral histories of the Inka have been recorded by the Spanish Jesuit Bernabe Cobo. According to these accounts, including a widely recognized sixteenth century chronology written by Miguel Cabello Balboa, Viracocha Inka was a "warlike" and "valiant" prince. As a young man, Viracocha declared that after he took the throne "he would conquer half the world". However, in 1438 when, according to Cobo, the Chanka offensive took place, Viracocha was advised to leave Cusco before the Chanca attack. He left for Caquia Xaquixahuana, taking his illegitimate sons, Inca Urco and Inca Socso. However, his third son, Cusi Inca Yupanqui (later famous as the Emperor Pachacuti) refused to abandon Cuzco and the House of the Sun. He remained with his brother Inca Rocca and six other chiefs, who together defeated the Chancas. The spoils were offered to Inca Viracocha to tread on, but he refused, stating Inca Urco should do so, as his successor. Inca Rocca later killed his brother Urco, and Inca Viracocha died of grief in Caquia Xaquixahuana.: 58–59, 61–61, 71 One chronicler, Sarmiento de Gamboa, states that Viracocha was the first Incan to rule the territories he conquered, while his predecessors merely raided and looted them. His captains, Apu Mayta and Vicaquirau, subdued the area within 8 leagues of Cuzco.: 54, 56–57
Pantheon has 78 people classified as politicians born between 1230 and 1975. Of these 78, 20 (25.64%) of them are still alive today. The most famous living politicians include Alberto Fujimori, Pedro Pablo Kuczynski, and Alejandro Toledo. The most famous deceased politicians include Javier Pérez de Cuéllar, Atahualpa, and Túpac Amaru. As of October 2020, 9 new politicians have been added to Pantheon including Ricardo Leoncio Elías Arias, Francisco Xavier de Luna Pizarro, and Susana Higuchi.
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Which Politicians were alive at the same time? This visualization shows the lifespans of the 25 most globally memorable Politicians since 1700.