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The Most Famous

POLITICIANS from Peru

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This page contains a list of the greatest Peruvian Politicians. The pantheon dataset contains 15,577 Politicians, 85 of which were born in Peru. This makes Peru the birth place of the 40th most number of Politicians behind Canada and Brazil.

Top 10

The following people are considered by Pantheon to be the top 10 most legendary Peruvian Politicians of all time. This list of famous Peruvian Politicians is sorted by HPI (Historical Popularity Index), a metric that aggregates information on a biography’s online popularity. Visit the rankings page to view the entire list of Peruvian Politicians.

Photo of Atahualpa

1. Atahualpa (1502 - 1533)

With an HPI of 73.45, Atahualpa is the most famous Peruvian Politician.  His biography has been translated into 63 different languages on wikipedia.

Atahualpa (), also Atawallpa (Quechua), Atabalica, Atahuallpa, Atabalipa (c. 1502 – 26–29 July 1533), was the last Inca Emperor, although he did not manage to be officially crowned as such. His father, Huayna Cápac, died around 1525; and his successor, Ninan Cuyuchi, died the same day (by smallpox, a European epidemic disease). This gave rise to the bloody Inca Civil War for the succession between Atahualpa and his brother Huáscar. Atahualpa was then in Quito, in command of the Inca army of the North and in charge of the government of that region, which was subjugated to the Inca Empire. Huáscar was crowned Inca in Cuzco. After a long campaign, Atahualpa managed to defeat Huáscar in 1532 near Cuzco. According to the chroniclers during the civil war there were fifteen battles. During the Inca Civil War, Atahualpa's forces continued to win victories thanks to the strategic skill of Quizquiz and Chalcuchímac. Atahualpa began a slow advance towards Cusco, and being in Marcahuamachuco, he sent an emissary to consult the oracle of the huaca (deity) Catequil, who predicted that he would have a bad end. Furious at the prophecy, he went to the sanctuary, killed the priest, and ordered the destruction of the temple. He then received the first news of the presence in the empire of Pizarro's expedition. During the ending of the Inca Civil War between two brothers for the throne of the Inca empire, faced with Atahualpa's advance, Huáscar left Cusco to personally lead his troops. It had the allied forces of Contisuyo and Collasuyo. The last battles of the war were archived in the surroundings of Huanacopampa or Cotabamba, near Cusco. Huáscar was defeated, captured, and cruelly treated. The troops of Quizquiz and Chalcuchímac took Cusco. Members of Huáscar's family and other Cusco panacas were tortured and executed. The quipucamayoc of Cusco were killed and the quipus were burned by Atahualpa's men to erase Huáscar's life from memory and rewrite history. At the Spanish battle for the capture of Cajamarca (with numerical superiority of Atahualpa's troops), The friar Vicente de Valverde, accompanied by the soldier Hernando de Aldana and an interpreter, addressed Atahualpa. Valverde, with an open breviary in his hand, began a Requirement ceremony, asking the Inca to accept Christianity as the true religion and submit to the authority of King Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and Pope Clement VII. Atahualpa asked the friar to hand over the breviary, he examined it and threw it to the ground, showing contempt. He then told Valverde that the Spanish should pay for everything they had stolen from his empire. The frightened friar ran away, followed by Aldana and the interpreter, while shouting to Pizarro: "What are you doing, Atahualpa is turning into a Lucifer!". that's how the battle started. Atahualpa was in Cajamarca (Aguas Termales) on his way to Cuzco to be crowned as the new emperor when he received an invitation from Francisco Pizarro to meet him in the Plaza de Armas in Cajamarca. Pizarro captured Atahualpa by means of a ruse, while Atahualpa's plan to capture the Spanish failed. Atahualpa offered to pay a huge ransom in exchange for his release, and Pizarro accepted his offer. Pizarro ordered his brother Huáscar to be brought, but fearful that Huáscar would unite with the Spanish, Atahualpa had executed him brother. After receiving the ransom, the Spanish accused Atahualpa of treason, conspiracy against the Spanish Crown, and the murder of Huáscar. They put him on trial, sentenced him to death, and was sentenced to be burned at the stake but, after his baptism, where he received the name of Francisco, his sentence was changed to be garroted. Atahualpa realized that precious metals were of great value to the Spaniards and offered them a large quantity of gold and silver in exchange for their freedom: he offered to fill the room where he was standing with pieces of gold, as far as his raised hand could reach; and twice the same room, with silver objects. The room, now known as the Cuarto del Rescate, was 22 feet long and 17 feet wide, according to chronicler Francisco de Jerez. Atahualpa promised to collect the ransom within two months. Pizarro accepted and put the promise in writing in an act before a notary public. Being a prisoner in a building in Cajamarca, Atahualpa was easygoing, cheerful and talkative with the Spaniards. His captors allowed him to have comforts and to be cared for by his servants and their women. They also allowed him to continue managing his empire. Many curacas went to the prison to have an audience with him. Atahualpa dined every night with Francisco Pizarro and conversed with him through an interpreter. He became friends with Hernando Pizarro. He showed to have intelligence; he asked questions that admired the Spaniards and spoke sharply. He learned a little Spanish. The chronicler Pedro Cieza de León affirms that he also learned to play chess, although Felipe Guamán Poma de Ayala says that it was the taptana, an Inca board game. Everything indicates that Pizarro never had in his plans to release the Inca. The situation of the Spaniards was distressing, as they feared an indigenous attack. In addition, Pizarro, who knew other episodes of the Spanish conquest of America, knew how important the capture of the indigenous leader was to pave the way for victory. At that time, Pizarro's partner, Diego de Almagro, arrived in Cajamarca at the head of a host of 150 Spaniards. Finding that he would receive nothing from the ransom, Almagro pushed to eliminate the Inca and continue the march south in search of new sources of wealth. Most of the Spaniards agreed with Almagro, but two captains, Hernando Pizarro and Hernando de Soto, defended Atahualpa's life. Francisco Pizarro pushed them both away so he could get rid of Atahualpa without hindrance. He sent his brother Hernando to deliver the Quinto real (a tribute) to Spain. He sent Hernando de Soto to Huamachuco in command of a contingent with the mission of subduing the Indians he found on a war footing. After the departure of both captains, Pizarro opened a process against the Inca to have a justification for killing him. Francisco Pizarro melted down most of the ransom treasure to distribute it among all the soldiers. Unlike the rest of the Inca objects, the ransom treasure did not remain protected until today due to the fact that it was made of gold, a highest value metal, and was used for trade. According to Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, the questions that were asked during the process were the following: -What women did Huayna Cápac (his father) have? Was Huáscar a legitimate son and Atahualpa a bastard? Did Huayna Cápac have other children apart from those mentioned? How did Atahualpa come to take over the Empire? Was Huáscar declared his father's heir or did he dismiss him? When and how did Huáscar's death take place? Did Atahualpa force his subjects to sacrifice women and children to their gods? Were the wars that he promoted and in which many people died were just? Was he squandering the wealth of the Empire? Did he favor his relatives in these extravagances? Being a prisoner, did he give orders to put the Spaniards to death? Despite the fact that Atahualpa was not recognized by the nobility of Cusco nor did he wear the mascapaicha, he is popularly considered the last ruler of Tahuantinsuyo.

Photo of Alberto Fujimori

2. Alberto Fujimori (1938 - )

With an HPI of 69.78, Alberto Fujimori is the 2nd most famous Peruvian Politician.  His biography has been translated into 64 different languages.

Alberto Kenya Fujimori Inomoto (Spanish: [alˈβeɾto fuxiˈmoɾi, - fuʝiˈmoɾi]; born 28 July 1938) is a Peruvian politician, professor and former engineer who was President of Peru from 28 July 1990 until 22 November 2000. Frequently described as a dictator, he remains a controversial figure in Peruvian politics; his government is credited with the creation of Fujimorism, defeating the Shining Path insurgency and restoring Peru's macroeconomic stability, though Fujimori ended his presidency by fleeing Peru for Japan amid a major scandal involving corruption and human rights abuses. Even amid his prosecution in 2008 for crimes against humanity relating to his presidency, two-thirds of Peruvians polled voiced approval for his leadership in that period.A Peruvian of Japanese descent, Fujimori took refuge in Japan when faced with charges of corruption in 2000. On arriving in Japan, he attempted to resign his presidency via fax, but his resignation was rejected by Congress, which preferred to remove him from office by the process of impeachment by a 62–9 vote. Wanted in Peru on charges of corruption and human rights abuses, Fujimori maintained a self-imposed exile until his arrest while visiting Chile in November 2005. He was extradited to face criminal charges in Peru on 22 September 2007. In December 2007, Fujimori was convicted of ordering an illegal search and seizure and was sentenced to six years imprisonment. The Supreme Court upheld the decision upon his appeal. In April 2009, Fujimori was convicted of human rights violations and sentenced to 25 years imprisonment for his role in kidnappings and murders by the Grupo Colina death squad during his government's battle against leftist guerrillas in the 1990s. The verdict, delivered by a three-judge panel, marked the first time that an elected head of state has been extradited to his home country, tried, and convicted of human rights violations. Fujimori was specifically found guilty of murder, bodily harm and two cases of kidnapping.In July 2009, Fujimori was sentenced to seven and a half years imprisonment for embezzlement after he admitted to giving $15 million from the Peruvian treasury to his intelligence service chief, Vladimiro Montesinos. Two months later, he pleaded guilty in a fourth trial to bribery and received an additional six-year term. Transparency International determined the money embezzled by Fujimori to be the seventh-most for a head of government active within 1984–2004. Under Peruvian law, all the resultant sentences must run concurrently; thus, the maximum length of imprisonment remained 25 years.In December 2017, Fujimori was pardoned by President Pedro Pablo Kuczynski shortly after Fujimori's son congressman Kenji Fujimori helped President Kuczynski survive an impeachment vote. The pardon was overturned by Peru's Supreme Court on 3 October 2018, and Fujimori was ordered back to prison. On 23 January 2019, Fujimori was sent back to prison to complete his sentence with his pardon formally being annulled three weeks later on 13 February 2019. The Constitutional Court of Peru in a 4–3 ruling approved the release of Fujimori on 17 March 2022, though it is not clear if or when he may be released. The ruling was made ignoring the recommendation of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, which criticized the controversial pardon of Fujimori.

Photo of Javier Pérez de Cuéllar

3. Javier Pérez de Cuéllar (1920 - 2020)

With an HPI of 69.69, Javier Pérez de Cuéllar is the 3rd most famous Peruvian Politician.  His biography has been translated into 76 different languages.

Javier Felipe Ricardo Pérez de Cuéllar de la Guerra (; Spanish: [xaˈβjeɾ ˈperez ðe ˈkweʝaɾ]; 19 January 1920 – 4 March 2020) was a Peruvian diplomat and politician who served as the fifth Secretary-General of the United Nations from 1982 to 1991. He later served as Prime Minister of Peru from 2000 to 2001. Pérez de Cuéllar was a member of the Club of Madrid, a group of former heads of state and government, and the Inter-American Dialogue.

Photo of Túpac Amaru

4. Túpac Amaru (1545 - 1572)

With an HPI of 68.45, Túpac Amaru is the 4th most famous Peruvian Politician.  His biography has been translated into 37 different languages.

Túpac Amaru (1545 – 24 September 1572) (first name also spelled Tupac, Topa, Tupaq, Thupaq, Thupa, last name also spelled Amaro instead of Amaru) was the last Sapa Inca of the Neo-Inca State, the final remaining independent part of the Inca Empire. He was executed by the Spanish following a months-long pursuit after the fall of the Neo-Inca State.: 11 His name is derived from the Quechua words thupaq, meaning "royal" or "shining" and amaru, which can either mean "snake" or refer to the snake-like being from Andean mythology.

Photo of Manco Cápac

5. Manco Cápac (1250 - 1169)

With an HPI of 67.60, Manco Cápac is the 5th most famous Peruvian Politician.  His biography has been translated into 35 different languages.

Manco Cápac (Quechua: Manqu Qhapaq, "the royal founder"), also known as Manco Inca and Ayar Manco was, according to some historians, the first governor and founder of the Inca civilization in Cusco, possibly in the early 13th century. He is also a main figure of Inca mythology, being the protagonist of the two best known legends about the origin of the Inca, both of them connecting him to the foundation of Cusco. His main wife was his older sister, Mama Uqllu, also the mother of his son and successor Sinchi Ruq'a. Even though his figure is mentioned in several chronicles, his actual existence remains uncertain.

Photo of Pachacuti

6. Pachacuti (1380 - 1460)

With an HPI of 66.29, Pachacuti is the 6th most famous Peruvian Politician.  His biography has been translated into 39 different languages.

Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui (Quechua: Pachakutiq Inka Yupanki) was the ninth Sapa Inca (1418–1471/1472) of the Kingdom of Cusco which he transformed into the Inca Empire (Quechua: Tawantinsuyu). Most archaeologists now believe that the famous Inca site of Machu Picchu was built as an estate for Pachacuti.In Quechua Pachakutiq means "reformer of the world", and Yupanki means "with honor". During his reign, Cusco grew from a hamlet into an empire that could compete with, and eventually overtake, the Chimú. He began an era of conquest that, within three generations, expanded the Inca dominion from the valley of Cusco to nearly the whole of western South America. According to chronicler Garcilaso de la Vega, Pachacuti created the Inti Raymi to celebrate the new year in the Andes of the Southern Hemisphere. Pachacuti is often linked to the origin and expansion of the Inti Sun Cult.

Photo of Manco Inca Yupanqui

7. Manco Inca Yupanqui (1512 - 1544)

With an HPI of 64.08, Manco Inca Yupanqui is the 7th most famous Peruvian Politician.  His biography has been translated into 30 different languages.

Manco Inca Yupanqui (c. 1515 – c. 1544) (Manqu Inka Yupanki in Quechua) was the founder and monarch (Sapa Inca) of the independent Neo-Inca State in Vilcabamba, although he was originally a puppet Inca Emperor installed by the Spaniards. He was also known as "Manco II" and "Manco Cápac II" ("Manqu Qhapaq II"). He was one of the sons of Huayna Capac and a younger brother of Huascar.: 150 

Photo of Huáscar

8. Huáscar (1490 - 1533)

With an HPI of 62.29, Huáscar is the 8th most famous Peruvian Politician.  His biography has been translated into 34 different languages.

Huáscar Inca (; Quechua: Waskar Inka; 1503–1532) also Guazcar was Sapa Inca of the Inca Empire from 1527 to 1532. He succeeded his father, Huayna Capac and his brother Ninan Cuyochi, both of whom died of smallpox while campaigning near Quito.: 112, 117–119 

Photo of Topa Inca Yupanqui

9. Topa Inca Yupanqui (1441 - 1493)

With an HPI of 61.97, Topa Inca Yupanqui is the 9th most famous Peruvian Politician.  His biography has been translated into 30 different languages.

Topa Inca Yupanqui or Túpac Inca Yupanqui (Quechua: 'Tupaq Inka Yupanki'), translated as "noble Inca accountant," (c. 1441–c. 1493) was the tenth Sapa Inca (1471–93) of the Inca Empire, fifth of the Hanan dynasty. His father was Pachacuti, and his son was Huayna Capac.: 93  Topa Inca belonged to the Qhapaq panaca (one of the clans of Inca nobles). His wife was his older sister, Mama Ocllo.: 88 

Photo of Viracocha Inca

10. Viracocha Inca (1310 - 1438)

With an HPI of 61.54, Viracocha Inca is the 10th most famous Peruvian Politician.  His biography has been translated into 29 different languages.

Viracocha (in hispanicized spelling) or Wiraqucha (Quechua, the name of a god) was the eighth Sapa Inca of the Kingdom of Cusco (beginning around 1410) and the third of the Hanan dynasty. He was not the son of Yawar Waqaq; however, it was presented as such because he belonged to the same dynasty as his predecessor: the Hanan. His wife's name was Mama Runtucaya, and their sons included Inca Rocca, Tupac Yupanqui, Pachacuti and Ccapac Yupanqui. His original name was Hatun Tupaq Inca, but was named Viracocha after seeing visions of the god in Urcos. With Ccuri-chulpa, he had two additional sons, Inca Urco and Inca Socso.: 54–57 Events in Viracocha Inka's life have been recorded by several Spanish writers. The source closest to the original indigenous accounts comes from Juan de Betanzos, a Spanish commoner who rose to prominence by marrying an Inka princess and becoming the foremost translator for the colonial government of Cusco. Traditional oral histories of the Inka have been recorded by the Spanish Jesuit Bernabe Cobo. According to these accounts, including a widely recognized sixteenth century chronology written by Miguel Cabello Balboa, Viracocha Inka was a "warlike" and "valiant" prince. As a young man, Viracocha declared that after he took the throne "he would conquer half the world". However, in 1438 when, according to Cobo, the Chanka offensive took place, Viracocha was advised to leave Cusco before the Chanca attack. He left for Caquia Xaquixahuana, taking his illegitimate sons, Inca Urco and Inca Socso. However, his third son, Cusi Inca Yupanqui (later famous as the Emperor Pachacuti) refused to abandon Cuzco and the House of the Sun. He remained with his brother Inca Rocca and six other chiefs, who together defeated the Chancas. The spoils were offered to Inca Viracocha to tread on, but he refused, stating Inca Urco should do so, as his successor. Inca Rocca later killed his brother Urco, and Inca Viracocha died of grief in Caquia Xaquixahuana.: 58–59, 61–61, 71 One chronicler, Sarmiento de Gamboa, states that Viracocha was the first Incan to rule the territories he conquered, while his predecessors merely raided and looted them. His captains, Apu Mayta and Vicaquirau, subdued the area within 8 leagues of Cuzco.: 54, 56–57 

Pantheon has 85 people classified as politicians born between 1230 and 1990. Of these 85, 25 (29.41%) of them are still alive today. The most famous living politicians include Alberto Fujimori, Pedro Pablo Kuczynski, and Alejandro Toledo. The most famous deceased politicians include Atahualpa, Javier Pérez de Cuéllar, and Túpac Amaru. As of April 2022, 8 new politicians have been added to Pantheon including Francisco Sagasti, Pedro Castillo, and José de la Riva Agüero.

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Newly Added Politicians (2022)

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Which Politicians were alive at the same time? This visualization shows the lifespans of the 25 most globally memorable Politicians since 1700.