Raymond Aron

1905 - 1983

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Raymond Claude Ferdinand Aron (French: [ʁɛmɔ̃ aʁɔ̃]; 14 March 1905 – 17 October 1983) was a French philosopher, sociologist, political scientist, historian and journalist, one of France's most prominent thinkers of the 20th century. Aron is best known for his 1955 book The Opium of the Intellectuals, the title of which inverts Karl Marx's claim that religion was the opium of the people; he argues that Marxism was the opium of the intellectuals in post-war France. In the book, Aron chastised French intellectuals for what he described as their harsh criticism of capitalism and democracy and their simultaneous defense of the actions of the communist governments of the East. Read more on Wikipedia

Since 2007, the English Wikipedia page of Raymond Aron has received more than 512,145 page views. His biography is available in 49 different languages on Wikipedia (up from 46 in 2019). Raymond Aron is the 266th most popular philosopher (up from 273rd in 2019), the 697th most popular biography from France (up from 722nd in 2019) and the 36th most popular French Philosopher.

Raymond Aron was a French philosopher, sociologist, and historian who is most famous for his contributions to the theory of totalitarianism.

Memorability Metrics

  • 510k

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  • 65.61

    Historical Popularity Index (HPI)

  • 49

    Languages Editions (L)

  • 5.85

    Effective Languages (L*)

  • 3.86

    Coefficient of Variation (CV)


Among philosophers, Raymond Aron ranks 266 out of 1,267Before him are Speusippus, Ibn al-Nafis, Nicole Oresme, Hans Jonas, Ammonius Saccas, and Jerome of Prague. After him are Abraham ibn Ezra, Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi, Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, Panaetius, Epimenides, and Jacques Maritain.

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Among people born in 1905, Raymond Aron ranks 21Before him are Astrid of Sweden, Vasily Grossman, Maria von Trapp, Felix Bloch, Arthur Koestler, and Marcel Lefebvre. After him are Guillermo Stábile, Artem Mikoyan, Emilio Segrè, Gerard Kuiper, Władysław Gomułka, and Raymond Cattell. Among people deceased in 1983, Raymond Aron ranks 16Before him are Felix Bloch, Tennessee Williams, Meyer Lansky, Arthur Koestler, Albert Claude, and Nikolai Podgorny. After him are David Niven, George Cukor, Haldan Keffer Hartline, Buckminster Fuller, Gerhard Barkhorn, and Alfred Tarski.

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In France

Among people born in France, Raymond Aron ranks 697 out of 6,770Before him are Louise of Savoy (1476), Éliphas Lévi (1810), Darius Milhaud (1892), Maurice Allais (1911), Jean-Henri Fabre (1823), and Madame de La Fayette (1634). After him are François Jacob (1920), Antoine-Jean Gros (1771), Pierre Loti (1850), Maurice Gamelin (1872), Pierre Bonnard (1867), and Alexandre Millerand (1859).


Among philosophers born in France, Raymond Aron ranks 36Before him are Joseph de Maistre (1753), Gaston Bachelard (1884), Roger Garaudy (1913), Guy Debord (1931), Georges Sorel (1847), and Nicole Oresme (1323). After him are Jacques Maritain (1882), François Fénelon (1651), Bruno Latour (1947), Roscellinus (1050), Sebastian Brant (1458), and Henri Lefebvre (1901).