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John Toland

1670 - 1722

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John Toland (30 November 1670 – 11 March 1722) was an Irish rationalist philosopher and freethinker, and occasional satirist, who wrote numerous books and pamphlets on political philosophy and philosophy of religion, which are early expressions of the philosophy of the Age of Enlightenment. Born in Ireland, he was educated at the universities of Glasgow, Edinburgh, Leiden and Oxford and was influenced by the philosophy of John Locke. His first, and best known work, Christianity Not Mysterious (1696), opposed hierarchy in both church and state. Read more on Wikipedia

Since 2007, the English Wikipedia page of John Toland has received more than 188,224 page views. His biography is available in 36 different languages on Wikipedia (up from 33 in 2019). John Toland is the 470th most popular philosopher (up from 490th in 2019), the 52nd most popular biography from Ireland (up from 58th in 2019) and the 3rd most popular Irish Philosopher.

Memorability Metrics

  • 190k

    Page Views (PV)

  • 59.44

    Historical Popularity Index (HPI)

  • 36

    Languages Editions (L)

  • 7.28

    Effective Languages (L*)

  • 2.74

    Coefficient of Variation (CV)

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Among philosophers, John Toland ranks 470 out of 1,081Before him are Nelson Goodman, Pierre Duhem, Dhul-Nun al-Misri, Leo Strauss, George Pachymeres, and Lev Gumilyov. After him are Shantideva, Stilpo, Dicaearchus, Su Song, Roger Scruton, and Rodolphus Agricola.

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Among people born in 1670, John Toland ranks 7Before him are Augustus II the Strong, Bernard Mandeville, Antonio Caldara, Louis Auguste, Duke of Maine, Countess Palatine Dorothea Sophie of Neuburg, and James FitzJames, 1st Duke of Berwick. After him are Giovanni Bononcini, Abigail Masham, Baroness Masham, Maria Margaretha Kirch, Gustav, Duke of Zweibrücken, Danilo I, Metropolitan of Cetinje, and Jean-Baptiste Dubos. Among people deceased in 1722, John Toland ranks 5Before him are Kangxi Emperor, Elizabeth Charlotte, Madame Palatine, Bartholomew Roberts, and John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough. After him are Johann Adam Reincken, Johann Kuhnau, Carl Gustav Rehnskiöld, Pierre Varignon, Marie Anne de La Trémoille, princesse des Ursins, Éléonore Desmier d'Olbreuse, and Countess Palatine Hedwig Elisabeth of Neuburg.

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In Ireland

Among people born in Ireland, John Toland ranks 52 out of 501Before him are Richard Cantillon (1680), Ethel Voynich (1864), John Tyndall (1820), Maureen O'Hara (1920), Harald Gille (1103), and Ernest Walton (1903). After him are Thomas Moore (1779), Edward England (1685), Mary Jane Kelly (1863), David Kelly (1929), Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener (1850), and Colin Farrell (1976).


Among philosophers born in Ireland, John Toland ranks 3Before him are George Berkeley (1685) and John Scotus Eriugena (810). After him are James Ussher (1581), G. E. M. Anscombe (1919), and William Thompson (1775).