The following people are considered by Pantheon to be the top 10 most legendary Filipino Politicians of all time. This list of famous Filipino Politicians is sorted by HPI (Historical Popularity Index), a metric that aggregates information on a biography’s online popularity. Visit the rankings page to view the entire list of Filipino Politicians.
With an HPI of 83.25, Rodrigo Duterte is the most famous Filipino Politician. His biography has been translated into 82 different languages on wikipedia.
Rodrigo Roa Duterte ( Tagalog: [roˈdɾigo ɾowa dʊˈtɛɾtɛ] (listen); born March 28, 1945), also known as Digong and Rody, is a Filipino politician who is the current president of the Philippines and the first from Mindanao to hold the office.He is the chairperson of PDP–Laban, the ruling political party in the Philippines. Duterte took office at age 71 on June 30, 2016, making him the oldest person to assume the Philippine presidency; the record was previously held by Sergio Osmeña at the age of 65. Born in Maasin, Southern Leyte, Duterte studied political science at the Lyceum of the Philippines University, graduating in 1968, before obtaining a law degree from San Beda College of Law in 1972. He then worked as a lawyer and was a prosecutor for Davao City, before becoming vice mayor and, subsequently, mayor of the city in the wake of the 1986 People Power Revolution. Duterte won seven terms and served as mayor of Davao for over 22 years. Frequently described as a populist and a nationalist, Duterte's political success has been aided by his vocal support for the extrajudicial killing of drug users and other criminals. Duterte's political career has also received scrutiny. Various human rights groups documented over 1,400 killings allegedly by death squads operating in Davao between 1998 and 2016; the victims were mainly drug users, petty criminals, and street children. A 2009 report by the Philippine Commission on Human Rights confirmed the "systematic practice of extrajudicial killings" by the Davao Death Squad. The Office of the Ombudsman closed an investigation in January 2016 stating that citing no evidence, but the case has since been reopened and reports of Duterte repeatedly confirmed that he personally killed criminal suspects as during his term as mayor of Davao surfaced.His domestic policy has focused on combating the illegal drug trade by initiating the controversial war on drugs, fighting crime, and corruption, and launching a massive infrastructure plan. He has declared his intention to pursue an "independent foreign policy".
With an HPI of 73.77, Corazon Aquino is the 2nd most famous Filipino Politician. Her biography has been translated into 94 different languages.
Maria Corazon Cojuangco Aquino (Tagalog pronunciation: [koɾaˈson aˈkino], born Maria Corazon Sumulong Cojuangco; January 25, 1933 – August 1, 2009), popularly known as Cory Aquino, was a Filipino politician who served as the 11th President of the Philippines, the first woman to hold that office. Corazon Aquino was the most prominent figure of the 1986 People Power Revolution, which ended the 20-year rule of President Ferdinand Marcos and led to the establishment of the current democratic Fifth Philippine Republic. Corazon Aquino was married to Senator Benigno Aquino Jr., who was one of the most prominent critics of President Marcos. After the assassination of her husband on 21 August 1983, she emerged as leader of the opposition against the President. In late 1985, Marcos called for a snap election, and Aquino ran for president with former senator Salvador Laurel as her running mate for vice president. After the election held on 7 February 1986, the Batasang Pambansa proclaimed Marcos and his running mate Arturo Tolentino as the winners, which prompted allegations of electoral fraud and Aquino's call for massive civil disobedience actions. Subsequently, the People's Power Revolution, a non-violent mass demonstration movement, took place from 22 February to 25 February. The People's Power Revolution, along with defections from the Armed Forces of the Philippines and support from the Philippine Catholic Church, successfully ousted Marcos and secured Aquino's accession to the presidency on 25 February 1986. Prior to her election as president, Aquino had not held any elected office. As President, Aquino oversaw the drafting of the 1987 Constitution, which limited the powers of the Presidency and re-established the bicameral Congress. Her administration emphasized civil liberties and human rights, and conducted peace talks to resolve the ongoing Communist insurgency and Islamist secession movements. Her economic policies focused on restoring economic health and confidence and sought to create a market-oriented and socially responsible economy. The Philippines also faced various natural calamities in the latter part of Aquino's administration, such as the 1990 Luzon earthquake and Tropical Storm Thelma. During her term in office, several coup attempts were made against Aquino's government. She was succeeded as president by Fidel Ramos and returned to civilian life, and remained a notable political figure for the rest of her life. Aquino was diagnosed with colorectal cancer in 2008 and died on 1 August 2009. Monuments dedicated to Corazon Aquino were established in Manila and her home province of Tarlac after her death. Her son Benigno Aquino III served as President of the Philippines from 30 June 2010 to 30 June 2016. She is highly regarded by her native country, where she is called the Mother of Democracy.
With an HPI of 73.58, Ferdinand Marcos is the 3rd most famous Filipino Politician. His biography has been translated into 121 different languages.
Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos Sr. (, September 11, 1917 – September 28, 1989) was a Filipino politician, lawyer and kleptocrat who served as the 10th President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986. Espousing an ideology of "constitutional authoritarianism" under the New Society Movement, he ruled as a dictator under martial law from 1972 until 1981, and kept most of his martial law powers until he was deposed in 1986. One of the most controversial leaders of the 20th century, Marcos' rule was infamous for its corruption, extravagance, and brutality.Throughout his political career, Marcos claimed to have been the "most decorated war hero in the Philippines". A number of his claims have been found to be false, with United States Army documents describing his wartime claims as "fraudulent" and "absurd."After the war, he became a lawyer, then served in the Philippine House of Representatives from 1949 to 1959 and the Philippine Senate from 1959 to 1965. He was elected the President of the Philippines in 1965, and presided over an economy that grew during the beginning and intermediate portion of his 20-year rule, but ended in the loss of livelihood, extreme poverty, and a crushing debt crisis. Marcos placed the Philippines under martial law on September 23, 1972, shortly before the end of his second term. The Constitution was revised, media outlets were silenced, and violence and oppression was used against the political opposition, Muslims, suspected communists, and ordinary citizens.He pursued an aggressive program of infrastructure development funded by foreign debt, making him very popular throughout almost all of his first term and eventually making him the first and only President of the Third Philippine Republic to win a second term, although it would also trigger an inflationary crisis which would lead to social unrest in his second term, and would eventually lead to his declaration of martial law in 1972. Martial law was ratified in 1973 through a fraudulent referendum.After being elected for a third term in the 1981 Philippine presidential election, Marcos's popularity suffered greatly due to the economic collapse which began in early 1983, and the public outrage over the assassination of opposition leader Senator Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino Jr. later that year. This discontent, the resulting resurgence of the opposition in the 1984 Philippine parliamentary election, and the discovery of documents exposing his financial accounts and false war records, led Marcos to call the snap election of 1986. Allegations of mass cheating, political turmoil, and human rights abuses led to the People Power Revolution of February 1986, which removed him from power. To avoid what could have been a military confrontation in Manila between pro- and anti-Marcos troops, Marcos was advised by US President Ronald Reagan through Senator Paul Laxalt to "cut and cut cleanly." Marcos then fled with his family to Hawaii. He was succeeded as president by Aquino's widow, Corazon "Cory" Aquino.According to source documents provided by the Presidential Commission on Good Government (PCGG), the Marcos family stole US$5 billion–$10 billion. The PCGG also maintained that the Marcos family enjoyed a decadent lifestyle, taking away billions of dollars from the Philippines between 1965 and 1986. His wife Imelda Marcos, made infamous in her own right by the excesses that characterized her and her husband's conjugal dictatorship, is the source of the term "Imeldific". Two of their children, Imee Marcos and Ferdinand "Bongbong" Marcos Jr., are still active in Philippine politics.
With an HPI of 70.49, Lapu-Lapu is the 4th most famous Filipino Politician. His biography has been translated into 42 different languages.
Lapulapu or Lapu-Lapu (fl. 1521), whose name was first recorded as Cilapulapu, was a datu of Mactan in the Visayas. Modern Philippine society regards him as the first Filipino hero because of his resistance to imperial Spanish colonization. He is best known for the Battle of Mactan that happened at dawn on April 27, 1521, where he and his warriors defeated the forces of Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan and his native allies Rajah Humabon and Datu Zula. Magellan's death ended his voyage of circumnavigation and delayed the Spanish occupation of the islands by over forty years until the expedition of Miguel López de Legazpi in 1564. Legazpi continued the expeditions of Magellan, leading to the colonization of the Philippines for 333 years. Monuments of Lapulapu have been built all over the Philippines to honor Lapulapu's bravery against the Spaniards. The Philippine National Police and the Bureau of Fire Protection use his image as part of their official seals. Besides being a rival of Rajah Humabon of neighboring Cebu, very little is reliably known about the life of Lapulapu. The only existing primary source mentioning him by name is the account of Antonio Pigafetta, and according to historian Resil B. Mojares, no European who left a primary record of Magellan's voyage/vessel "knew what he looked like, heard him speak (his recorded words of defiance and pride are all indirect), or mentioned that he was present in the battle of Mactan that made him famous." His name, origins, religion, and fate are still a matter of controversy.
With an HPI of 69.70, Emilio Aguinaldo is the 5th most famous Filipino Politician. His biography has been translated into 61 different languages.
Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy (Spanish pronunciation: [eˈmi.ljo a.ɣiˈnal.do]: March 22, 1869 – February 6, 1964) was a Filipino revolutionary, politician, and military leader who is officially recognized as the first and the youngest President of the Philippines (1899–1901) and the first president of a constitutional republic in Asia. He led Philippine forces first against Spain in the latter part of the Philippine Revolution (1896–1898), then in the Spanish–American War (1898), and finally against the United States during the Philippine–American War (1899–1901). In 1935, Aguinaldo ran unsuccessfully for president of the Philippine Commonwealth against Manuel Quezon. He was also one of the Filipino historical figures to be recommended as a national hero of the Philippines.
With an HPI of 68.96, Benigno Aquino Jr. is the 6th most famous Filipino Politician. His biography has been translated into 44 different languages.
Benigno Simeon "Ninoy" Aquino Jr., (November 27, 1932 – August 21, 1983) was a Filipino politician who served as a Senator of the Philippines (1967–1972) and governor of the province of Tarlac. He was the husband of Corazon Aquino—who, after his death, eventually became President of the Philippines—and father of a later President, Benigno Aquino III. Aquino, together with Gerardo Roxas and Jovito Salonga, helped form the leadership of the opposition towards then President Ferdinand Marcos. He was the aggressive leader who together with the intellectual leader Sen. Jose W. Diokno led the overall opposition. Shortly after the imposition of martial law, Aquino was arrested in 1972 along with others associated with the New People's Army's armed insurgency and incarcerated for seven years. He founded his own party, Lakas ng Bayan and ran in the 1978 Philippine parliamentary election, but all the party's candidates lost in the election. In 1980, he was permitted by Marcos to travel to the United States for medical treatment following a heart attack. During the early 1980s he became one of the most notable critics of the Marcos regime, and enjoyed popularity across the US due to the numerous rallies he attended at the time. As the situation in the Philippines worsened, Aquino decided to return to face Marcos and restore democracy in the country, despite numerous threats against it. He was assassinated at the Manila International Airport on August 21, 1983, upon returning from his self-imposed exile. His death revitalized opposition to Marcos; it also catapulted his widow, Corazon, into the political limelight and prompted her to successfully run for a six-year term as president as a member of the United Nationalist Democratic Organization (UNIDO) party in the 1986 snap election. Among other public structures, Manila International Airport has since been renamed Ninoy Aquino International Airport in his honor, and the anniversary of his death is a national holiday.
With an HPI of 66.67, Gloria Macapagal Arroyo is the 7th most famous Filipino Politician. Her biography has been translated into 76 different languages.
Maria Gloria Macaraeg Macapagal Arroyo (Tagalog pronunciation: [makapaˈɡal ɐˈɾɔjɔ], born April 5, 1947), often referred to by her initials GMA, is a Filipino academic and politician who served as the 14th president of the Philippines from 2001 until 2010. Before her accession to the presidency, she served as the 10th vice president of the Philippines from 1998 to 2001, and was a senator from 1992 to 1998. After her presidency, she was elected as the representative of Pampanga's 2nd district in 2010 and later became the Speaker of the House of Representatives from 2018 until her retirement in 2019. She is the first woman to hold two of the highest offices in the country: Vice President and Speaker of the House.The daughter of former President Diosdado Macapagal, she studied economics at Georgetown University in the United States, where she began a lasting friendly relationship with her classmate and future U.S. President Bill Clinton. She then became a professor of economics at Ateneo de Manila University, where her eventual successor, President Benigno Aquino III, was one of her students. She entered government in 1987, serving as the assistant secretary and undersecretary of the Department of Trade and Industry upon the invitation of President Corazon Aquino, Benigno's mother. After serving as a senator from 1992 to 1998, she was elected to the vice presidency under President Joseph Estrada, despite having run on an opposing ticket. After Estrada was accused of corruption, she resigned her cabinet position as Secretary of Social Welfare and Development and joined the growing opposition against the president, who faced impeachment. Estrada was soon forced out from office by the Second EDSA Revolution in 2001, and Arroyo was sworn into the presidency by Chief Justice Hilario Davide, Jr. on January 20 that year. In 2003, the Oakwood mutiny occurred after signs of a martial law declaration were seen under her rule. She was elected to a full six-year term in the controversial 2004 presidential election, and was sworn in on June 30, 2004. Following her presidency, she was elected to the House of Representatives through her home district, making her the second Philippine president—after José P. Laurel—to pursue a lower office after their presidency. On November 18, 2011, Arroyo was arrested and held at the Veterans Memorial Medical Center in Quezon City under charges of electoral sabotage but released on bail in July 2012. These charges were later dropped for lack of evidence. She was rearrested in October 2012, on charges of misuse of $8.8 million in state lottery funds. She was given a hospital arrest, allegedly due to "life-threatening health conditions" certified by her doctors. On July 19, 2016, she was acquitted by the Supreme Court by a vote of 11-4 under the administration of her ally, Rodrigo Duterte. Also, the Supreme Court declared the DOJ's hold departure order unconstitutional. Her lawyers afterwards stated that Arroyo no longer needed her medical paraphernalia, releasing her from the hospital.She has since been a member of the Philippine Academy of the Spanish Language after she announced her support to bring back Spanish as an official language of the Philippines during her 9-year presidency. On July 23, 2018, she was elected as the Speaker of the House of Representatives of the Philippines under the Duterte Administration, controversially replacing Pantaleon Alvarez. She spearheaded various controversial bills, including a bill that sought to lower the age of criminal liability to 12 years old.
With an HPI of 66.49, Fidel Ramos is the 8th most famous Filipino Politician. His biography has been translated into 56 different languages.
Fidel Valdez Ramos (Spanish: [fiˈðel βalˈdes ra.mos]; born Fidel Ramos y Valdez; March 18, 1928), popularly known as FVR and Eddie, is a retired Filipino general and politician who served as the 12th president of the Philippines from 1992 to 1998. He is the only career military officer who reached the rank of five-star general/admiral de jure who rose from second lieutenant up to commander-in-chief of the armed forces. During his six years in office, Ramos was widely credited and admired by many for revitalizing and renewing international confidence in the Philippine economy. At age 93, he is currently the oldest living former Philippine president. He ascended the ranks in the Philippine military early in his career and became Chief of the Philippine Constabulary and Vice Chief-of-Staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines during the term of President Ferdinand Marcos. During the 1986 EDSA People Power Revolution, Ramos was hailed as a hero by many Filipinos for his decision to break away from the administration of President Marcos and pledge allegiance and loyalty to the newly established government of President Corazon Aquino. Prior to his election as president, Ramos served in the cabinet of President Corazón Aquino, first as chief-of-staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP), and later as Secretary of National Defense from 1986 to 1991. He was credited for the creation of the Philippine Army's Special Forces and the Philippine National Police Special Action Force. Since his retirement, he has remained active in politics, serving as adviser to his successors.
With an HPI of 64.93, Joseph Estrada is the 9th most famous Filipino Politician. His biography has been translated into 53 different languages.
Joseph Ejercito Estrada (Tagalog pronunciation: [ɛsˈtɾada], born José Marcelo Ejército; April 19, 1937), also known by the nickname Erap, is a Filipino politician and former actor who served as the 13th president of the Philippines from 1998 to 2001, 9th vice president of the Philippines from 1992 to 1998, and the 26th mayor of the City of Manila, the country's capital, from 2013 to 2019. In 2001, he became the first president in Asia to be impeached from an executive role and resigned from power. Estrada gained popularity as a film actor, playing the lead role in over a hundred films in an acting career spanning some three decades, and model, who was started as a fashion and ramp model at the age of 13. He used his popularity as an actor to make gains in politics, serving as Mayor of San Juan from 1969 to 1986, as Senator from 1987 to 1992, then as Vice President under President Fidel V. Ramos from 1992 to 1998. Estrada was elected president in 1998 with a wide margin of votes separating him from the other challengers, and was sworn into the presidency on June 30, 1998. In 2000 he declared an "all-out-war" against the Moro Islamic Liberation Front and captured its headquarters and other camps. Allegations of corruption spawned an impeachment trial in the Senate, and in 2001 Estrada was ousted by "People Power 2" after the prosecution walked out of the impeachment court when the senator-judges voted "no" in the opening of the second envelope. In 2007, Estrada was sentenced by a special division of the Sandiganbayan to reclusión perpetua for the plunder of $80 million from the government, but was later granted pardon by President and his former deputy Gloria Macapagal Arroyo. He ran for president again in the 2010 presidential election, but was defeated by Senator Benigno Aquino III by a wide margin. He later served as Mayor of Manila for two terms, from 2013 to 2019.
With an HPI of 64.74, Jose P. Laurel is the 10th most famous Filipino Politician. His biography has been translated into 37 different languages.
José Paciano Laurel y García (March 9, 1891 – November 6, 1959) was a Filipino politician and judge. He was the president of the Second Philippine Republic, a Japanese puppet state when occupied during World War II, from 1943 to 1945. Since the administration of President Diosdado Macapagal (1961–1965), Laurel has been officially recognized by later administrations as a former president of the Philippines.
Pantheon has 35 people classified as politicians born between 1491 and 1965. Of these 35, 11 (31.43%) of them are still alive today. The most famous living politicians include Rodrigo Duterte, Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, and Fidel Ramos. The most famous deceased politicians include Corazon Aquino, Ferdinand Marcos, and Lapu-Lapu. As of October 2020, 4 new politicians have been added to Pantheon including Mariano Trías, Fernando Lopez, and Salvador Laurel.
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Which Politicians were alive at the same time? This visualization shows the lifespans of the 22 most globally memorable Politicians since 1700.