The Most Famous

GEOGRAPHERS from United States

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This page contains a list of the greatest American Geographers. The pantheon dataset contains 86 Geographers, 7 of which were born in United States. This makes United States the birth place of the 3rd most number of Geographers behind Germany, and United Kingdom.

Top 7

The following people are considered by Pantheon to be the most legendary American Geographers of all time. This list of famous American Geographers is sorted by HPI (Historical Popularity Index), a metric that aggregates information on a biography’s online popularity.

Photo of William Morris Davis

1. William Morris Davis (1850 - 1934)

With an HPI of 59.38, William Morris Davis is the most famous American Geographer.  His biography has been translated into 37 different languages on wikipedia.

William Morris Davis (February 12, 1850 – February 5, 1934) was an American geographer, geologist, geomorphologist, and meteorologist, often called the "father of American geography". He was born into a prominent Quaker family in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, son of Edward M. Davis and Maria Mott Davis (a daughter of the women's advocate Lucretia Mott). Davis studied geology and geography at Harvard's Lawrence Scientific School and then joined the Harvard sponsored geographic exploration party to the Colorado territory, led by the inaugural Sturgis-Hooper professor of geology, Josiah Dwight Whitney. Wild stories had circulated since soon after the Louisiana Purchase about Rocky Mountains peaks 18,000 feet or higher. The Harvard expedition set out to investigate, and found none, but they did find "14ers" (14,000-plus feet). He graduated from Harvard University in 1869 and received a Master of Mining Engineering in the following year. Davis worked for Nathaniel Shaler as a field assistant, and was later hired to teach at Harvard. Though his legacy lives on in geomorphology, he also advanced theories of scientific racism in his writings about physical geography. After his first wife died, Davis married Mary M. Wyman from Cambridge, Massachusetts in 1914, and, after her death, he married Lucy L. Tennant from Milton, Massachusetts in 1928, who survived him. He died in Pasadena, California, shortly before his 84th birthday. His Cambridge home is a National Historic Landmark.

Photo of Marie Tharp

2. Marie Tharp (1920 - 2006)

With an HPI of 54.55, Marie Tharp is the 2nd most famous American Geographer.  Her biography has been translated into 28 different languages.

Marie Tharp (July 30, 1920 – August 23, 2006) was an American geologist and oceanographic cartographer. In the 1950s, she collaborated with geologist Bruce Heezen to produce the first scientific map of the Atlantic Ocean floor. Her cartography revealed a more detailed topography and multi-dimensional geographical landscape of the ocean bottom. Tharp's discovery of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge caused a paradigm shift in earth science that led to the acceptance of the theories of plate tectonics and continental drift. Marie Tharp was born on July 30, 1920, in Ypsilanti, Michigan, the only child of Bertha Louise Tharp, a German and Latin teacher, and William Edgar Tharp, a soil surveyor for the United States Department of Agriculture. She often accompanied her father on his fieldwork, which gave her an early introduction to mapmaking. Despite this, she had no interest in pursuing a career in fieldwork as, during that time, this was understood to be men's work. Due to the nature of William Tharp's work, the family constantly moved until he retired in 1931. At that point, Marie had attended over 17 public schools in Alabama, Iowa, Michigan and Indiana, which made it difficult for her to establish friendships. Her mother, who died when Marie was 15, was her closest female acquaintance. A full school year in Florence, Alabama, was particularly influential for her. She attended a class called Current Science, where she learned about contemporary scientists and their research projects. In addition, she undertook school field trips on weekends to study trees and rocks. After her father's retirement, Marie Tharp moved to a farm in Bellefontaine, Ohio, where she graduated from the local high school. She spent gap years between high school and college working on her family's farm. She entered the Ohio University in 1939, where she "changed her major every semester." Tharp graduated from Ohio University in 1943 with bachelor's degrees in English and music and four minors. After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, many young men left schools and universities to join the armed forces. During World War II, more women were recruited into professions like petroleum geology, normally restricted to men. "With classrooms empty of men during the war years, Michigan—which had never allowed women into its geology program—was trying to fill seats," though less than 4% of all earth sciences doctorates at the time were obtained by women. Having taken a geology class at Ohio, Tharp attended the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor's petroleum geology program, where she completed a master's degree in 1944. After graduating, Tharp began work as a junior geologist at the Stanolind Oil company in Tulsa, Oklahoma, but discovered that the company did not permit women to do nor attend fieldwork. The company only permitted Tharp to coordinate maps and data for male colleagues' trips. While still working as a geologist for the Stanolind Oil company, Tharp enrolled in the faculty of mathematics at the University of Tulsa, obtaining her second BSc. By 1948, Tharp had spent four years in Tulsa and was looking for her next career step. She moved to New York City and initially sought work at the American Museum of Natural History. Still, after learning how time-consuming paleontological research was, she looked for positions at Columbia University. She eventually found drafting work with Maurice Ewing, the founder of the Lamont Geological Observatory (now the Lamont–Doherty Earth Observatory). Curiously, when interviewed for the job, Tharp did not mention she had a master's degree in geology. Tharp was one of the first women to work at the Lamont Geological Observatory. While there, she met Bruce Heezen, and in early work together, they used photographic data to locate downed military aircraft from World War II. Eventually she worked for Heezen exclusively, plotting the ocean floor. In 1964, due to a professional disagreement between Ewing and Heezen, Ewing cut off Heezen's access to Lamont data, and then fired Tharp. She continued to work on mapping projects from her home, being paid by Heezen through navy contracts. For the first 18 years of their collaboration, Heezen collected bathymetric data aboard the research ship Vema, while Tharp drew maps from that data since women were barred from working on ships at the time. She was later able to join a 1968 data-collection expedition on the USNS Kane. She independently used data collected from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution's research ship Atlantis, and seismographic data from undersea earthquakes. Her work with Heezen represented the first systematic attempt to map the entire ocean floor. As early as the mid-19th century, a submarine mountain range in the Atlantic had been roughly outlined by John Murray and Johan Hjort. Marie Tharp also discovered the rift valley on her more precise graphical representations of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, which were based on new measurement data obtained with the echo sounder. It took her a year to convince Bruce Heezen of this. Later, she also mapped the other mid-ocean ridges. Before the early 1950s, scientists knew very little about the ocean floor structure. Though studying geology on land was cheaper and easier, the overall structure of the Earth could not be understood without knowledge of the structure and evolution of the seafloor. In 1952, Tharp painstakingly aligned sounding profiles from Atlantis, acquired during 1946–1952, and one profile from the naval ship Stewart acquired in 1921. She created approximately six profiles stretching west to east across the North Atlantic. From these profiles, she examined the bathymetry of the northern sections of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Tharp identified an aligned, v-shaped structure running continuously through the axis of the ridge and believed that it might be a rift valley formed by the oceanic surface being pulled apart. Heezen was initially unconvinced as the idea would have supported continental drift, then a controversial theory. Many scientists, including Heezen, believed that continental drift was impossible at the time. Instead, for a time, he favored the Expanding Earth hypothesis, (now infamously) dismissing her explanation as "girl talk". Heezen soon hired Howard Foster to plot the location of earthquake epicenters in the oceans for a project relating large-scale turbidity currents to undersea earthquakes. The creation of this earthquake epicenter map proved to be a useful secondary dataset for examining the bathymetry of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. When Foster's map of earthquake epicenters was overlaid with Tharp's profile of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, it became clear that the location of these earthquakes aligned with Tharp's rift valley. After putting together these two datasets, Tharp became convinced that a rift valley existed within the crest of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It was only after seeing that the location of earthquake epicenters aligned with Tharp's rift valley that Heezen accepted her hypothesis and turned to the alternative theories of plate tectonics and continental drift. Because of the Cold War, the U.S. government forbade topographic seafloor maps to be published for fear that Soviet submarines could use them. To circumvent that restriction, Tharp and Heezen decided to draw their maps in a more realistic style, and published their first physiographic map of the North Atlantic in 1957. Tharp's name did not appear on any of the major papers on plate tectonics that Heezen and others published between 1959 and 1963. Tharp continued working with graduate student assistants to further map the extent of the central rift valley. Tharp demonstrated that the rift valley extended along with the Mid-Atlantic Ridge into the South Atlantic, and found a similar valley structure in the Indian Ocean, Arabian Sea, Red Sea, and Gulf of Aden, suggesting the presence of a global oceanic rift zone. Subsequently, in collaboration with the Austrian landscape painter Heinrich Berann, Tharp and Heezen realized their map of the entire ocean floor, which was published in 1977 by National Geographic under the title of The World Ocean Floor. Although Tharp was later recognized and credited for her work on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, it was Heezen who, at the time in 1956, put out and received credit for the discovery that was made. After Heezen's death, Tharp continued to serve on the faculty of Columbia University until 1983, after which she operated a map-distribution business in South Nyack during her retirement. Tharp donated her map collection and notes to the Map and Geography Division of the Library of Congress in 1995. In 1997, Tharp received double honors from the Library of Congress, which named her one of the four greatest cartographers of the 20th century and included her work in an exhibit in the 100th-anniversary celebration of its Geography and Map Division. In 2001, Tharp was awarded the first annual Lamont–Doherty Heritage Award at her home institution for her life's work as a pioneer of oceanography. Tharp died of cancer in Nyack, New York, on August 23, 2006, at the age of 86. In 1948, she married David Flanagan and moved with him to New York. They divorced in 1952. Like many scientists, Marie Tharp was recognized mainly later in life. Her awards include: 1978 – National Geographic Society’s Hubbard Medal 1996 – Society of Woman Geographers Outstanding Achievement Award 1999 – Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution’s Mary Sears Woman Pioneer in Oceanography Award 2001 – Lamont–Doherty Earth Observatory Heritage Award Tharp was recognized in 1997 by the Library of Congress as one of the four greatest cartographers of the 20th century. The position of Marie Tharp Lamont Research Professor was created in her honor. Created by Lamont in 2004, the Marie Tharp Fellowship is a competitive academic visiting fellowship awarded to women to work with researchers at the Earth Institute of Columbia University. Women who are accepted are given the opportunity to work with faculty, research staff, postdoctoral researchers and graduate students and in the duration of 3 months, they are awarded up to $30,000 as financial aid. Google Earth included the Marie Tharp Historical Map layer in 2009, allowing people to view Tharp's ocean map using the Google Earth interface. She is the subject of the 2013 biography by Hali Felt entitled Soundings: The Story of the Remarkable Woman Who Mapped the Ocean Floor, which was cited by the New York Times for its standing as an "eloquent testament both to Tharp's importance and to Felt's powers of imagination." She was animated in "The Lost Worlds of Planet Earth", the ninth episode of Neil deGrasse Tyson's Cosmos: A Spacetime Odyssey, and voiced by actress Amanda Seyfried. The episode depicts her discovery of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Later in the episode, deGrasse Tyson recognized Tharp not only as an influential scientist who happens to be a woman but also as one who should be recognized as a scientist who overcame sexism to contribute to her field. Her life story is told in three children's books, Solving the Puzzle Under the Sea: Marie Tharp Maps the Ocean Floor, by Robert Burleigh and illustrated by Raúl Colón, Ocean Speaks: How Marie Tharp Revealed the Ocean's Biggest Secret by Jess Keatting and illustrated by Katie Hickey and in 2020 MacMillan published Marie's Ocean: Marie Tharp Maps the Mountains under the Sea written and illustrated by Josie James. This picture book of Tharp's life was honored as a National Science Teaching Association Best STEM Book of 2021 and a National Council for the Social Studies 2021 Notable Social Studies Trade Book for Young Readers. In 2015 the International Astronomical Union named the Tharp Moon crater in her honor. In 2022 the non-profit Ocean Research Project named their 72ft research schooner after her. On November 21, 2022, Google honored Tharp by releasing a Google Doodle, which included narration, mini-games, and animations, telling the story of Tharp's discovery of continental drift and providing historical context for her work. On March 8, 2023 (International Women's Day), the U.S. Secretary of the Navy, Carlos Del Toro, announced the renaming of a ship in Tharp's honor, becoming USNS Marie Tharp (T-AGS-66). Tharp, Marie; Heezen, Bruce C.; Ewing, Maurice (1959). The floors of the oceans: I. The North Atlantic. Vol. 65. Geological Society of America. doi:10.1130/SPE65-p1. Heezen, B C; Bunce, Elizabeth T; Hersey, J B; Tharp, Marie (1964). "Chain and Romanche fracture zones". Deep-Sea Research and Oceanographic Abstracts. 11 (1): 11–33. Bibcode:1964DSRA...11...11H. doi:10.1016/0011-7471(64)91079-4. Heezen, B C; Tharp, Marie (1965). "Tectonic fabric of the atlantic and indian oceans and continental drift". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London A. 258 (1088): 90–106. Bibcode:1965RSPTA.258...90H. doi:10.1098/rsta.1965.0024. S2CID 121476006. Tharp, Marie; Friedman, Gerald M (2002). "Mapping the world ocean floor". Northeastern Geology and Environmental Sciences. 24 (2): 142–149.. Interview of Marie Tharp by Ronald Doel on 1995 December 14, Niels Bohr Library & Archives, American Institute of Physics, College Park, MD USA Interview of Marie Tharp by Ronald Doel on 1996 December 18, Niels Bohr Library & Archives, American Institute of Physics, College Park, MD USA Interview of Marie Tharp by Tanya Levin on 1997 May 24, Niels Bohr Library & Archives, American Institute of Physics, College Park, MD USA Interview of Marie Tharp by Tanya Levin on 1997 June 28, Niels Bohr Library & Archives, American Institute of Physics, College Park, MD USA Interview of Marie Tharp by Ronald Doel on 1994 September 14, Niels Bohr Library & Archives, American Institute of Physics, College Park, MD USA

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3. Richard Hartshorne (1899 - 1992)

With an HPI of 52.44, Richard Hartshorne is the 3rd most famous American Geographer.  His biography has been translated into 18 different languages.

Richard Hartshorne (; December 12, 1899 – November 5, 1992) was a prominent American geographer, and professor at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, who specialized in economic and political geography and the philosophy of geography. He is known in particular for his methodological work The Nature of Geography, published in 1939.

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4. Ellen Churchill Semple (1863 - 1932)

With an HPI of 49.84, Ellen Churchill Semple is the 4th most famous American Geographer.  Her biography has been translated into 21 different languages.

Ellen Churchill Semple (January 8, 1863 – May 8, 1932) was an American geographer and the first female president of the Association of American Geographers. She contributed significantly to the early development of the discipline of geography in the United States, particularly studies of human geography. She is most closely associated with work in anthropogeography and environmentalism, and the debate about "environmental determinism". Semple was born in Louisville, Kentucky, the youngest of five children by Alexander Bonner Semple and Emerine Price. Semple's early education was guided by her mother, Emerine Semple, as well as private tutors. Semple followed her sister, Patty Semple, to Vassar where she graduated as valedictorian and was the youngest member of her graduating class. Semple graduated in 1882 with a BA in History from Vassar College at the age of 19, and continued on at Vassar to earn an MA in History in (1891). She became interested in geography while visiting London, where she encountered the works of Friedrich Ratzel. She went to Germany to seek out Ratzel and study with him at the University of Leipzig. As a woman, she was prohibited from matriculating, but she was able to gain permission to attend Ratzel's lectures, the only woman in a class of five hundred male students. She continued to work with Ratzel and produced several academic papers in American and European journals, but was never conferred a degree. Semple was the first woman to become president of the Association for American Geographers. Semple was a pioneer in American geography, helping to broaden the discipline's focus beyond physical features of the earth and bringing attention to human aspects of geography. Her innovative approach and theories influenced the development of human geography as a significant subfield and influenced the social sciences across disciplines, including history and anthropology. Semple taught at the University of Chicago from 1906 to 1920, but her first permanent academic position was offered to her in 1922 at Clark University. She was the first female faculty member, teaching graduate students in geography for the next decade, but her salary was always significantly less than her male colleagues. She also lectured at the University of Oxford in 1912 and 1922. Her first book, American History and its Geographic Conditions (1903) and her second, Influences of Geographic Environment (1911), were widely used textbooks for students of geography and history in the United States at the start of the 20th century. Semple was a founding member of the Association of American Geographers (AAG). She was elected AAG's first female President in 1921, and remains only one of six women to hold that office since the organization's founding in 1904. "Man is the product of the earth's surface." (Semple 1911, p. 1) Semple was a key figure in the theory of environmental determinism, along with Ellsworth Huntington and Griffith Taylor. Influenced by the works of Charles Darwin and inspired by her mentor Freidrich Ratzel, Semple theorized that human activity was primarily determined by the physical environment. Although environmental determinism is today heavily critiqued and has lost favor in social theory, it was widely accepted in academia in the late 19th-early 20th centuries. Still, Semple's influence can be seen in the works of many modern-day geographers, including Jared Diamond. In a series of books and papers she communicated certain aspects of the work of German geographer Friedrich Ratzel to the Anglophone community. Standard disciplinary accounts often attribute to Semple a prevailing interest in environmental determinism, a theory that the physical environment, rather than social conditions, determines culture; however her later work emphasized environmental influences as opposed to the environment's deterministic effect on culture, reflecting broader academic discontent with environmental determinism after the First World War. In her work Influences of Geographic Environment on the Basis of Ratzel's System of Anthropo-Geography (1911), she describes people and their associated landscapes, dividing the world into key environmental types. Semple identifies four key ways that the physical environment is affected: 1) direct physical effects (climate, altitude); 2) psychical effects (culture, art, religion); 3) economic and social development (resources and livelihoods); 4) movement of people (natural barriers and routes, such as mountains and rivers). Semple's work also reflects discussions and conflicts within geography and social theory about determinism and race. Indeed, in some works she challenges popular ideas of her time about race determining social and cultural differences, suggesting that environment was a more important factor in cultural development. Semple's theories of environmental determinism have been criticized as overly simplistic and often replicating the same themes of racial determination through "nature". However, Semple's work has more recently been revisited for its early examination of issues which are now central to political ecology. Semple believed that mankind originated in the tropics but gained full maturity in the temperate regions of the world."where man has remained in the tropics, with few exceptions, he has suffered arrested development. His nursery has kept him a child." Semple conducted fieldwork for her research in Kentucky and the Mediterranean, an innovative practice that was uncommon in geography at the time. From 1911 to 1912, she undertook an eighteen-month journey which visited Japan, Korea, China, the Philippines, Java, Ceylon, India, Egypt, Palestine, Lebanon, and Turkey in addition to places in Europe and the United States. The main focus of the trip was a three-month visit to Japan, facilitated by her Vassar classmate Ōyama Sutematsu, which produced unusually positive depictions of Japan during a period of high anti-Japanese sentiment in the United States. During her fieldwork, she took notes on human-environment relations, cultural features of the landscape, and made detailed observations of housing, structures, livelihoods, and daily life. Semple continued to teach geography until her death in 1932. She died in West Palm Beach, Florida, and is buried in the Cave Hill National Cemetery in Louisville. In 1914 Semple received the Cullum Geographic Medal from the American Geographical Society, "in recognition of her distinguished contributions to the science of anthropogeography". She was President of the Association of American Geographers (now the American Association of Geographers) from 1921 to 1922 and was awarded the Helen Culver Gold Medal by the Geographic Society of Chicago, in recognition of her leadership in American Geography. Semple Elementary School in Semple's hometown of Louisville was named in her honor. — (1896). Civilization Is at Bottom an Economic Fact. — (1897). The Influence of the Appalachian Barrier Upon Colonial History. — (1899). "The Development of the Hanse Towns in Relation to Their Geographical Environment". Journal of the American Geographical Society of New York. 31 (3): 236–255. doi:10.2307/197165. ISSN 1536-0407. JSTOR 197165. — (1901). "The Anglo-Saxons of the Kentucky Mountains: A Study in Anthropogeography". The Geographical Journal. 17 (6): 588. Bibcode:1901GeogJ..17..588S. doi:10.2307/1775213. JSTOR 1775213. — (1902). The Badlands of Tillydrone. — (1903). American History and Its Geographic Conditions. — (1904). The North-Shore Villages of the Lower St. Lawrence. — (1904). The Influence of the Watering Hole Upon Hillhead Halls. — (1911). "Influences of Geographic Environment: On the Basis of Ratzel's System of Anthropo-Geography". Nature. 88 (2195): 101. Bibcode:1911Natur..88..101.. doi:10.1038/088101a0. — (1915). Barrier Boundary of the Mediterranean Basin and Its Northern Breaches As Factors in History. — (1916). "Pirate Coasts of the Mediterranean Sea". Geographical Review. 2 (2): 134. Bibcode:1916GeoRv...2..134S. doi:10.2307/207388. JSTOR 207388. — (1918). Texts of the Ukraine "Peace": With Maps. — (1919). The Ancient Piedmont Route of Northern Mesopotamia. — (1920). The Barbarians of Balnagask. — (1921). Geographic Factors in the Ancient Mediterranean Grain Trade. — (1922). The Influence of Geographic Conditions Upon Ancient Mediterranean Stock-Raising. — (1927). "The Templed Promontories of the Ancient Mediterranean". Geographical Review. 17 (3): 353. Bibcode:1927GeoRv..17..353S. doi:10.2307/208321. JSTOR 208321. — (1928). Ancient Mediterranean Agriculture. — (1929). "Ancient Mediterranean Pleasure Gardens". Geographical Review. 19 (3): 420. Bibcode:1929GeoRv..19..420S. doi:10.2307/209149. JSTOR 209149. — (1931). The Geography of the Mediterranean Region: Its Relation to Ancient History. Keighren, Innes M. "Bringing geography to the book: charting the reception of Influences of geographic environment." Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 31, no. 4 (2006): 525–40. Keighren, Innes M. Bringing geography to book: Ellen Semple and the reception of geographical knowledge. London: I.B. Tauris, 2010. "Semple, Ellen Churchill." Notable American Women. Vol. 2, 4th ed., The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1975 Accessed August 27, 2007 Lewis, Martin W. (February 2011). "Ellen Churchill Semple and Paths Not Taken". GeoCurrents. Accessed 2015-03-12. Works by Ellen Churchill Semple at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Ellen Churchill Semple at Internet Archive

Photo of Carl O. Sauer

5. Carl O. Sauer (1889 - 1975)

With an HPI of 47.85, Carl O. Sauer is the 5th most famous American Geographer.  His biography has been translated into 18 different languages.

Carl Ortwin Sauer (December 24, 1889 – July 18, 1975) was an American geographer. Sauer was a professor of geography at the University of California at Berkeley from 1923 until becoming professor emeritus in 1957. He has been called "the dean of American historical geography" and he was instrumental in the early development of the geography graduate school at Berkeley. One of his best known works was Agricultural Origins and Dispersals (1952). In 1927, Carl Sauer wrote the article "Recent Developments in Cultural Geography", which considered how cultural landscapes are made up of "the forms superimposed on the physical landscape".

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6. Ellsworth Huntington (1876 - 1947)

With an HPI of 47.21, Ellsworth Huntington is the 6th most famous American Geographer.  His biography has been translated into 19 different languages.

Ellsworth Huntington (September 16, 1876 – October 17, 1947) was a professor of geography at Yale University during the early 20th century, known for his studies on environmental determinism/climatic determinism, economic growth, and economic geography. He served as president of the Ecological Society of America in 1917, the Association of American Geographers in 1923 and president of the board of directors of the American Eugenics Society from 1934 to 1938. He taught at Euphrates College, Turkey (1897–1901); accompanied the Pumpelly (1903) and Barrett (1905–1906) expeditions to central Asia; and wrote of his Asian experiences in Explorations in Turkestan (1905) and The Pulse of Asia (1907). He taught geography at Yale (1907–1915) and from 1917 was a research associate there, devoting his time chiefly to climatic and anthropogeographic studies. He was the 1916 recipient of the Elisha Kent Kane Gold Medal from the Geographical Society of Philadelphia. In 1909, Huntington led the Yale Expedition to Palestine. It was his mission to determine "step by step the process by which geologic structure, topographic form, and the present and past nature of the climate have shaped man's progress, moulded his history; and thus played an incalculable part in the development of a system of thought which could scarcely have arisen under any other physical circumstances." He was on the original standing committee of the Foundation for the Study of Cycles from 1941.

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7. Henry Schoolcraft (1793 - 1864)

With an HPI of 40.10, Henry Schoolcraft is the 7th most famous American Geographer.  His biography has been translated into 18 different languages.

Henry Rowe Schoolcraft (March 28, 1793 – December 10, 1864) was an American geographer, geologist, and ethnologist, noted for his early studies of Native American cultures, as well as for his 1832 expedition to the source of the Mississippi River. He is also noted for his major six-volume study of Native Americans commissioned by Congress and published in the 1850s. He served as United States Indian agent in Michigan for a period beginning in 1822. During this period, he named several newly organized counties, often creating neologisms that he claimed were derived from indigenous languages. There he married Jane Johnston, daughter of a prominent Scotch-Irish fur trader and an Ojibwe mother, who was the high-ranking daughter of Waubojeeg, a war chief. Johnston lived with her family in Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan. Johnston was bilingual and educated, having grown up in a literate household. She taught Schoolcraft the Ojibwe language and much about her maternal culture. They had several children together, only two of whom survived past childhood. She is now recognized for her poetry and other writings as the first Native American literary writer in the United States. Schoolcraft continued to study Native American tribes and publish works about them. In 1833, he was elected as a member of the American Philosophical Society. By 1846, Jane had died. That year, Schoolcraft was commissioned by Congress for a major study, known as Indian Tribes of the United States. It was published in six volumes from 1851 to 1857, and illustrated by Seth Eastman, a career Army officer with extensive experience as an artist of indigenous peoples. Schoolcraft married again in 1847, to Mary Howard, from a slaveholding family in South Carolina. In 1860, Howard published the bestselling novel The Black Gauntlet. It was part of the Anti-Tom literature that was written in Southern response to the bestselling Uncle Tom's Cabin by Northern abolitionist Harriet Beecher Stowe. Schoolcraft was born in 1793 in Guilderland, Albany County, New York, the son of Lawrence Schoolcraft and Margaret-Anne Barbara (née Rowe) Schoolcraft. He entered Union College at age 15 and later attended Middlebury College. He was especially interested in geology and mineralogy. His father was a glassmaker, and Schoolcraft initially studied and worked in the same industry. At age 24, he wrote his first paper on the topic, Vitreology (1817). After working in several glassworks in New York, Vermont, and New Hampshire, the young Schoolcraft left the family business at age 25 to explore the western frontier. From November 18 to February 1819, Schoolcraft and his companion Levi Pettibone made an expedition from Potosi, Missouri, to what is now Springfield. They traveled further down the White River into Arkansas, making a survey of the geography, geology, and mineralogy of the area. Schoolcraft published this study in A View of the Lead Mines of Missouri (1819). In this book, he correctly identified the potential for lead deposits in the region. Missouri eventually became the number one lead-producing state. (French colonists had earlier developed a lead mine outside St. Louis in the 18th century.) He also published Journal of a Tour into the Interior of Missouri and Arkansaw (1821), the first written account of a European-American exploration of the Ozark Mountains. This expedition and his resulting publications brought Schoolcraft to the attention of John C. Calhoun, the Secretary of War, who considered him "a man of industry, ambition, and insatiable curiosity." Calhoun recommended Schoolcraft to the Michigan Territorial Governor, Lewis Cass, for a position on an expedition led by Cass to explore the wilderness region of Lake Superior and the lands west to the upper Mississippi River. Beginning in the spring of 1820, Schoolcraft served as a geologist on the Lewis Cass expedition. Beginning in Detroit, they traveled nearly 2,000 miles (3,200 km) along Lake Huron and Lake Superior, west to the Mississippi River, down the river to present-day Iowa, and then returning to Detroit after tracing the shores of Lake Michigan. The expedition was intended to establish the source of the Mississippi River. It was also intended to settle the question of the yet undetermined boundary between the United States and British Canada. The expedition traveled as far upstream as Upper Red Cedar Lake in present-day Minnesota. Since low water precluded navigating farther upstream, the expedition designated the lake as the river's headwaters and renamed it in honor of Cass. (Schoolcraft noted, however, that locals informed the expedition that it was possible to navigate by canoe farther upstream earlier in the year when water levels were higher.) Schoolcraft's account of the expedition was published as A Narrative Journal of Travels Through the Northwestern the Sources of the Mississippi River (1821). In 1821, he was a member of another government expedition, which traveled through Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio. In 1832, he led a second expedition to the headwaters of the Mississippi River. Arriving a month earlier than had the 1820 expedition, he was able to take advantage of higher water to navigate to Lake Itasca. Schoolcraft met his first wife Jane Johnston soon after being assigned in 1822 to Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, as the first US Indian agent in the region. Two years before, the government had built Fort Brady and wanted to establish an official presence to forestall any renewed British threat following the War of 1812. The government tried to ensure against British agitation of the Ojibwa. Jane was the eldest daughter of John Johnston, a prominent Scots-Irish fur trader, and his wife Ozhaguscodaywayquay (Susan Johnston), daughter of a leading Ojibwe chief, Waubojeeg, and his wife. Both of the Johnstons were of high status; they had eight children together, and their cultured, wealthy family was well known in the area. Jane was also known as Bamewawagezhikaquay (Woman of the Sound the Stars Make Rushing Through the Sky). Her knowledge of the Ojibwe language and culture, which she shared with Schoolcraft, formed in part the source material for Longfellow's epic poem The Song of Hiawatha. Jane and Henry had four children together: William Henry (June 1824 – March 1827) died of croup at nearly three. Jane Schoolcraft wrote poems expressing her grief about his loss. stillborn daughter (November 1825). Jane Susan Ann (October 14, 1827 – November 25, 1892, Richmond, Virginia), called Janee. John Johnston (October 2, 1829 – April 24, 1864), served in the Civil War but was wounded at the Battle of Gettysburg and disabled. He died at the age of 34 in Elmira, New York. The Schoolcrafts sent Janee and John to a boarding school in Detroit for part of their education. Janee at 11 could handle the transition, but John at nine had a more difficult time and missed his parents. The Schoolcrafts had a literary marriage, producing a family magazine. They included their own poetry in letters to each other through the years. Jane suffered from frequent illnesses. She died in 1842, while visiting a sister in Canada, and was buried at St. John's Anglican Church, Ancaster, Ontario. On January 12, 1847, after moving to Washington, DC, Schoolcraft married again, at age 53, to Mary Howard (died March 12, 1878). She was a southerner and slaveholder, from an elite planter family of the Beaufort district of South Carolina. Her support of slavery and opposition to mixed-race unions created strains in her relationship with the Schoolcraft children. They became alienated from both her and their father. After Schoolcraft's hands became paralyzed in 1848 from a rheumatic condition, Mary devoted much of her attention to caring for him and helping him complete his massive study of Native Americans, which had been commissioned by Congress in 1846. In 1860, she published the novel The Black Gauntlet: A Tale of Plantation Life in South Carolina (which she said her husband had encouraged). One of many pro-slavery books published in response to Harriet Beecher Stowe's bestselling Uncle Tom's Cabin, such defenses of slavery, published in the decade before the American Civil War, became known as the anti-Tom genre. Hers became a best-seller, although not on the scale of Stowe's. Schoolcraft began his ethnological research in 1822 during his appointment as US Indian agent at Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan. He had responsibility for tribes in what is now northern Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. From his wife Jane Johnston, Schoolcraft learned the Ojibwe language, as well as much of the lore of the tribe and its culture. Schoolcraft created The Muzzeniegun, or Literary Voyager, a family magazine which he and Jane produced in the winter of 1826–1827 and circulated among friends ("muzzeniegun" coming from Ojibwe mazina'igan meaning "book"). It contained mostly his own writings, although he did include a few pieces from his wife and a few other locals. Although they produced only single issues, each was distributed widely to residents in Sault Ste. Marie, then to Schoolcraft's friends in Detroit, New York, and other eastern cities. Jane Johnston Schoolcraft used the pen names of "Rosa" and Leelinau as personae to write about different aspects of Indian culture. Schoolcraft was elected to the legislature of the Michigan Territory, where he served from 1828 to 1832. In 1832, he traveled again to the upper reaches of the Mississippi to settle continuing troubles between the Ojibwe and Dakota (Sioux) nations. He worked to talk to as many Native American leaders as possible to maintain the peace. He was also provided with a surgeon and given instructions to begin vaccinating Native Americans against smallpox. He determined that smallpox had been unknown among the Ojibwe before the return in 1750 of a war party that had contact with Europeans on the East Coast. They had gone to Montreal to assist the French against the British in the French and Indian War (the North American front of the Seven Years' War). During the voyage, Schoolcraft took the opportunity to explore the region, making the first accurate map of the Lake District around western Lake Superior. Following the lead of Ozawindib, an Ojibwe guide, Schoolcraft encountered the true headwaters of the Mississippi River, a lake that the natives called "Omushkos", meaning Elk Lake. which Schoolcraft renamed Lake Itasca, a name which he coined from the Latin words veritas meaning 'truth' and caput meaning 'head'. The nearby Schoolcraft River, the first major tributary of the Mississippi, was later named in his honor. United States newspapers widely covered this expedition. Schoolcraft followed up with a personal account of the discovery with his book, Narrative of an Expedition Through the Upper Mississippi River to Itasca Lake (1834). After his territory for Indian Affairs was greatly increased in 1833, Schoolcraft and his wife Jane moved to Mackinac Island, the new headquarters of his administration. In 1836, he was instrumental in settling land disputes with the Ojibwe. He worked with them to accomplish the Treaty of Washington (1836), by which they ceded to the United States a vast territory of more than 13 million acres (53,000 km2), worth many millions of dollars. He believed that the Ojibwe would be better off learning to farm and giving up their wide hunting lands. The government agreed to pay subsidies and provide supplies while the Ojibwe made a transition to a new way of living, but its provision of the promised subsidies was often late and underfunded. The Ojibwe suffered as a result. In 1838 pursuant to the terms of the treaty, Schoolcraft oversaw the construction of the Indian Dormitory on Mackinac Island. The building is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. It provided temporary housing to the Ojibwe who came to Mackinac Island to receive annuities during their transition to what was envisioned by the US government as a more settled way of life. In 1839 Schoolcraft was appointed Superintendent of Indian Affairs in the Northern Department. He began a series of Native American studies later published as the Algic Researches (2 vols., 1839). These included his collection of Native American stories and legends, many of which his wife Jane Johnston Schoolcraft told him or translated for him from her culture. While in Michigan, Schoolcraft became a member of the Board of Regents of the University of Michigan in its early years. In this position he helped establish the state university's financial organization. Schoolcraft founded and contributed to the first United States journal on public education, The Journal of Education. He also published The Souvenir of the Lakes, the first literary magazine in Michigan. Schoolcraft named many of Michigan's counties and locations within the former Michigan Territory. He named Leelanau County, Michigan after his wife's pen name of "Leelinau". For those counties established in 1840, he made elisions – the process of joining or merging morphemes that contained abstract ideas from multiple languages – to form unique place names he considered as never previously used in North America. In names such as Alcona, Algoma, Allegan, Alpena, Arenac, Iosco, Kalkaska, Leelanau, Lenawee, Oscoda, and Tuscola, for example, Schoolcraft combined words and syllables from Native American languages with words and syllables from Latin and Arabic. Lake Itasca, the source lake of the Mississippi River, is another example of his eliding Native American and Latin morphemes. In 1843 the unique names of six counties named in 1840 after Native Michigan chiefs were erased – Kautawaubet County, Kaykakee County, Keskkauko County, Meegisee County, Mikenauk County, and Tonedagana County. But none of the 1840 counties with unique Schoolcraft elisions were changed. When the Whig Party came to power in 1841 with the election of William Henry Harrison, Schoolcraft lost his political position as Indian agent. He and Jane moved to New York. She died the next year during a visit with a sister in Canada, while Schoolcraft was traveling in Europe. He continued to write about Native Americans. In 1846 Congress commissioned him to develop a comprehensive reference work on American Indian tribes. Schoolcraft traveled to England to request the services of George Catlin to illustrate his proposed work, as the latter was widely regarded as the premier illustrator of Indian life. Schoolcraft was deeply disappointed when Catlin refused. Schoolcraft later engaged the artist Seth Eastman, a career Army officer, as illustrator. An Army captain and later brigadier general, Eastman was renowned for his paintings of Native American peoples. He had two extended assignments at Fort Snelling in present-day Minnesota, the second time as commander of the fort, and had closely studied, drawn and painted the people of the Indian cultures of the Great Plains. Schoolcraft worked for years on the history and survey of the Indian tribes of the United States. It was published in six volumes from 1851 to 1857 by J. B. Lippincott & Co. of Philadelphia. Critics praised its scholarship and valuable content by Schoolcraft, and the meticulous and knowledgeable illustrations by Eastman. Critics also noted the work's shortcomings, including a lack of index, and poor organization, which made the information almost inaccessible. Almost 100 years later, in 1954, the Bureau of American Ethnology of the Smithsonian Institution prepared and published an index to the volumes. (It was not until 1928 that the US government conducted another overall study of the conditions of American Indians; it was informally known as the Meriam Report, after the technical director of the team, Lewis Meriam.) Schoolcraft died in Washington, D.C., on December 10, 1864. After his death, Schoolcraft's second wife Mary donated over 200 books from his library, which had been published in 35 different Native American languages, to the Boston Athenæum. Schoolcraft and Mary were each buried in the Congressional Cemetery in Washington, DC. His papers are archived in the Library of Congress. A view of the lead mines of Missouri : including some observations on the mineralogy, geology, geography, antiquities, soil, climate, population, and productions of Missouri and Arkansaw, and other sections of the western country : accompanied by three engravings. New York: Charles Wiley, 1819, 294 pages. Journal of a tour into the interior of Missouri and Arkansaw : from Potosi, or Mine á Burton, in Missouri Territory, in a south-west direction, toward the Rocky Mountains: performed in the years 1818 and 1819. London: Sir Richard Phillips and Co, 1821, 102 pages. Narrative Journal of travels Through the Northwestern Regions of the United States Extending from Detroit through the Great Chain of the American Lakes to the Sources of the Mississippi River in the year 1820. Albany: E. & E. Hosford, 1821, 419 pages; republished under the same title with an introductory essay by Mentor L. Williams, ed. East Lansing, Michigan: The Michigan State College Press, 195). A memoir on the geological position of a fossil tree, discovered in the secondary rocks of the river Des Plaines. Read before the American Geological Society. Albany: E. and E. Horsford, 1822. 20 pages. Travels in the central portions of the Mississippi valley: comprising observations on its mineral geography, internal resources, and aboriginal population. New York: Collins and Hannay, 1825, 459 pages. Narrative of an expedition through the upper Mississippi to Itasca Lake, the actual source of this river; embracing an exploratory trip through the St. Croix and Burntwood (or Broule) Rivers, in 1832. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1834, 307 pages. Algic Researches, a book of Indian allegories and legends (2 vols., 1839), 498 pages, including two introductory essays: "General considerations," 20 pages, and "Preliminary Observations on the Tales," 24 pages, and 46 tales in total. Oneota, or Characteristics of the Red Race of America. New York and London: Wiley & Putnam, 1845. 512 pages; The Red Race of America. New York: W.H. Graham, 1847. 416 pages, being a partial reprint of Oneota (1845), missing approx. 96 pages of the 1845 book, and substantially reorganized; reprinted in 1848 with a new title: The Indian in his wigwam, or, Characteristics of the red race of America: from original notes and manuscripts, New York: Dewitt and Davenport. 1848; reprinted in 1848 as The Indian in his wigwam, etc. New York: W.H. Graham. 1848; and again in 1848 with a different publisher: Buffalo, NY: Derby & Hewson. Notes on the Iroquois, or, contributions to the Statistics, Aboriginal History, Antiquities and General Ethnology of Western New-York, New-York: Bartlett & Welford, Astor House. 1846. 285 pages. Reprinted, with substantial additions, Albany: Erastus H. Pease & Co. 1847. 498 pages. The American Indians: their history, condition and prospects, from original notes and manuscripts. Buffalo: George H. Derby and Co., 1851, 495 pages, being a reprint of The Red Race of America (1847) and The Indian in his wigwam (1848), but with an additional 'Appendix' of 78 pages, containing 'Captivity Narratives' of Alexander Henry, Quintin Stockwell, Peter Williamson, Jonathan Carver, and Mrs. Scott); reprinted as The American Indians, etc. Rochester: Wanzer, Foot and Co., 1851; reprinted in 1853 as Western Scenes and Reminiscences: Together with Thrilling Legends and Traditions of the Red Men of the Forest. Auburn: Derby and Miller; Buffalo: Derby, Orton & Mulligan, 1853. 495 pages,including a new 3-page table of contents on pages iii-v. Personal memoirs of a residence of thirty years with the Indian tribes on the American frontiers: with brief notices of passing events, facts, and opinions, A.D. 1812 to A.D. 1842. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Gramblo and Co.,1851. 703 pages. Historical and Statistical Information respecting the History, Condition, and Prospects of the Indian Tribes of the United States, with illustrations by Capt. Seth Eastman, published by authority of congress, which appropriated nearly $30,000 a volume for the purpose (6 vols., 1851–7) He had collected material for two additional volumes, but the government suddenly suspended the publication of the work. Scenes and Adventures in the Semi-Alpine Region of the Ozark Mountains of Missouri and Arkansas, a revised edition of his first book of travel (1853) Summary Narrative of an Exploratory Expedition to the Sources of the Mississippi River in 1820, resumed and completed by the Discovery of its Origin in Itasca Lake in 1832 (1854) The myth of Hiawatha, and other oral legends, mythologic and allegoric, of the North American Indians (Philadelphia: J.P. Lippincott & Co.; London: Trübner & Co.,1856), a partial reprint in a single volume of * Algic Researches (1839) with 42 tales (many of them new), without the original two introductory essays of Algic Researches, but with a new five-page preface dated at Washington, D.C., April 28, 1856; a new ten-page introduction; and a new 37-page appendix, "Wild Notes of the Pibbugwan", containing 28 poems. 343 pages. Review of Beltrami's "Decouverts des sources du Mississippi et de la Riviere Sanglante ..." In: North American review, Vol. 27, No. 60 (July, 1828), pp. 89–115. Review of "Proceedings and Fourteenth Annual Report of the Board of Managers of the Baptist General Convention, at their meeting held in New York, April, 1828" and "A Discourse on the Occassion [sic] of Forming the African Mission School Society, delivered in Christ Church in Hartford, Conn. on Sunday Evening, Aug. 10, 1828. By J.M. Wainwright, D.D." In: North American review, Vol. 28, No. 63 (April, 1829), pp. 354–368. Review of Gallatin's "Synopsis of the Indian tribes within the United States . . ." by and in Archaeologia America: Transactions and Collections of the American Antiquarian Society, Vol. 2d, 1836. In: North American review, Vol. 45, No. 96 (July, 1837), pp. 34–59. Review of "Antiquitates Americanae, sive Scriptores Septentrionales Rerum Ante-Columbianarum in America" [English: "The Ante-Columbian History of America"], in American Biblical Repository, 2d series, Vol. 1, No. 2 (April 1839), pp. 430–439. Review of Catlin's Letters and Notes on the Manners, Customs, and Condition of the North American Indians and Bradford's American Antiquities and Researches into the Origin and History of the Red Race. In North American review, Vol. 54, No. 115 (April, 1842), pp. 283–299. "Brant, Red Jacket, Uncas, Miontonimo. A notice of the biographies of the Late William L. Stone, prepared for the Democratic Review - 1843," reprinted in Oneota, 1845, pp. 352–363. "A Discourse, delivered on the anniversary of the Historical Society of Michigan, June 4, 1830. Published by Request. By Henry R. Schoolcraft," (Detroit: Geo. L. Whitney, 1830); reprinted as "Discourse delivered before the Historical Society of Michigan. By Henry R. Schoolcraft. Some Remarks upon the origin and character of the North American Indians, &c." . IN Historical and scientific sketches of Michigan, comprising a series of discourses delivered before the Historical Society of Michigan, and Other Interesting Papers Relative to the Territory. (Detroit: Stephen Wells and George L. Whitney, 1834), pp. 51–109, including 18 pages of 18 footnotes, supplemental to the 1830 address reprinted in 1834. "Influence of Ardent Spirits on the Conditions of Indians. An address read before the Chippewa County Temperance Society, at Sault Ste-Marie, May 8th, 1832," reprinted in Oneota, 1845, pp. 413–425. "Education of the Indian Race." A paper originally written for the American Lyceum, 1834. Partially reprinted in Oneota, 1845, pp. 332–341. “ Mythology, superstitions, and languages of the North American Indians." In: New York Literary and Theological Review, Vol. 2 (March 1835), pp. 96–121. Partially reprinted in Oneota, 1845, pp. 449–460. Cyclopædia indianensis, of which only a single number was issued (1842). "Fate of the red race in America." In: Democratic review, 1844. Reprinted in Onéota, 1845, pp. 487–510. Report on Aboriginal Names and the Geographical Terminology of New York (1845). Plan for Investigating American Ethnology (1846). Notices of Antique Earthen Vessels from Florida (1847). Address on Early American History (New York, 1847). Outlines of the Life and Character of Gen. Lewis Cass (Albany, 1848). Bibliographical Catalogue of Books, Translations of the Scriptures, and other Publications in the Indian Tongues of the United States (Washington, 1849). "Transallegania, or the Groans of Missouri," a poem (1820) "The Rise of the West, or a Prospect of the Mississippi Valley," a poem (Detroit, 1827) "Indian Melodies," a poem (1830) "The Man of Bronze or, Portraitures of Indian Character," delivered before the Algic Society at its annual meeting in 1834. Iosco, or the Vale of Norma (Detroit, 1834) "Helderbergia, or the Apotheosis of the Heroes of the Anti-Rent War," an anonymous poem (Albany, 1835) "Alhalla, or the Land of Talladega," a poem published under the pen-name "Henry Rowe Colcraft" (1843) Elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1821. Numerous counties, towns, lakes, streams, roads and other geographic features are named in his honor, including: Schoolcraft County in Michigan. Schoolcraft Township in Houghton County, Michigan. Schoolcraft Township in Kalamazoo County, Michigan. Schoolcraft Township in Hubbard County, Minnesota. The Village of Schoolcraft in Kalamazoo County, Michigan. Schoolcraft River and Schoolcraft Lake in Minnesota. Schoolcraft Island in Lake Itasca, Minnesota. U.S. Route 65 in the vicinity of Springfield, Missouri is named the Schoolcraft Freeway. Schoolcraft Roads are located in Marquette and Wayne Counties, Michigan, and in Dakota County, Minnesota. Schoolcraft College in Livonia, Michigan is named in his honor. Henry R. Schoolcraft Elementary School in Waterford, Michigan is named in his honor. Henry's Food Court on the Schoolcraft College campus in Livonia, Michigan is founded in his name. Schoolcraft State Park in Minnesota was established to commemorate his expeditions in 1820 and 1832. The Liberty ship SS Henry R. Schoolcraft was launched in 1943. Bremer, Richard G. (1987). Indian Agent & Wilderness Scholar: The Life of Henry Rowe Schoolcraft. Clarke Historical Library, Central Michigan University. Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 24 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 359. Lovell, Linda. "Henry Rowe Schoolcraft (1793–1864)", The Encyclopedia of Arkansas History and Culture, Central Arkansas Library System, Accessed on January 21, 2007. Merrill, George P. (1924) The First One Hundred Years of American Geology. Reprinted by Hafner Publishing Co., 1969. Mumford, Jeremy. "Mixed-race identity in a nineteenth-century family: the Schoolcrafts of Sault Ste. Marie, 1824–27", Michigan Historical Review, Mar 22, 1999, accessed Dec 11, 2008 Osborn, Chase S. and Stellanova Osborn. Schoolcraft-Longfellow-Hiawatha (1942) online Savage, Henry Jr. (1979) Discovering America 1700–1875. Harper & Row, pp. 229–233. Tanner, Helen Hornbeck. "Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe" American National Biography online Toomey, Mary J. "Schoolcraft College — The Name and its Significance" Archived May 2, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, Schoolcraft College, Accessed on February 13, 2007. Wilson, J. G.; Fiske, J., eds. (1900). "Schoolcraft, Lawrence" . Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton. Works by Henry Rowe Schoolcraft at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Henry Schoolcraft at Internet Archive Works by Henry Schoolcraft at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks) Henry Rowe Schoolcraft, The Online Books Page, University of Pennsylvania Boston Athenæum: Schoolcraft Collection of Books in Native American Languages. Digital Collection. Henry Rowe Schoolcraft, Journal of 1818–1819 Tour of the Ozarks, Missouri State University


Pantheon has 7 people classified as American geographers born between 1793 and 1920. Of these 7, none of them are still alive today. The most famous deceased American geographers include William Morris Davis, Marie Tharp, and Richard Hartshorne.

Deceased American Geographers

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Which Geographers were alive at the same time? This visualization shows the lifespans of the 7 most globally memorable Geographers since 1700.