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Rudolf Otto

1869 - 1937

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Rudolf Otto (25 September 1869 – 7 March 1937) was an eminent German Lutheran theologian, philosopher, and comparative religionist. He is regarded as one of the most influential scholars of religion in the early twentieth century and is best known for his concept of the numinous, a profound emotional experience he argued was at the heart of the world's religions. While his work started in the domain of liberal Christian theology, its main thrust was always apologetical, seeking to defend religion against naturalist critiques. Read more on Wikipedia

Since 2007, the English Wikipedia page of Rudolf Otto has received more than 343,014 page views. His biography is available in 32 different languages on Wikipedia (up from 29 in 2019). Rudolf Otto is the 297th most popular philosopher (up from 369th in 2019), the 637th most popular biography from Germany (up from 850th in 2019) and the 42nd most popular German Philosopher.

Rudolf Otto is most famous for his theory that religion is a response to the experience of the mysterium tremendum et fascinans, or the awe-inspiring and fascinating mystery.

Memorability Metrics

  • 340k

    Page Views (PV)

  • 64.07

    Historical Popularity Index (HPI)

  • 32

    Languages Editions (L)

  • 11.08

    Effective Languages (L*)

  • 2.00

    Coefficient of Variation (CV)

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Among philosophers, Rudolf Otto ranks 297 out of 1,081Before him are Adam of Bremen, Synesius, Robert Nozick, Sri Aurobindo, Hipparchia of Maroneia, and Jerome of Prague. After him are Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, Aristoxenus, John Searle, Alfred Tarski, Cleanthes, and Johann Reuchlin.

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Among people born in 1869, Rudolf Otto ranks 15Before him are Karl Haushofer, Emma Goldman, Fritz Pregl, Hans Spemann, Kasturba Gandhi, and Maud of Wales. After him are Frederick Trump, Calouste Gulbenkian, Christian Lous Lange, Komitas, Siegfried Wagner, and Rupprecht, Crown Prince of Bavaria. Among people deceased in 1937, Rudolf Otto ranks 21Before him are Gerda Taro, J. M. Barrie, Yevgeny Zamyatin, Austen Chamberlain, Sergo Ordzhonikidze, and J. Bruce Ismay. After him are Princess Cecilie of Greece and Denmark, Gaston Doumergue, Ramsay MacDonald, Jean Harlow, Karol Szymanowski, and Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild.

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In Germany

Among people born in Germany, Rudolf Otto ranks 637 out of 6,142Before him are Walther Rathenau (1867), Maria Josepha of Bavaria (1739), Werner von Haeften (1908), Anna Anderson (1896), Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse (1837), and Jakob Fugger (1459). After him are Frederick Trump (1869), Otto Rehhagel (1938), Ernest Augustus, Elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg (1629), Karl Wolff (1900), Jürgen Klopp (1967), and Hans von Aachen (1552).


Among philosophers born in Germany, Rudolf Otto ranks 42Before him are Hugh of Saint Victor (1096), Ernst Bloch (1885), Hans Jonas (1903), Bruno Bauer (1809), Rudolf Bultmann (1884), and Adam of Bremen (null). After him are Johann Reuchlin (1455), Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi (1743), David Strauss (1808), Moritz Schlick (1882), Hermann Cohen (1842), and Wilhelm Windelband (1848).