Mumtaz Mahal

1593 - 1631

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Mumtaz Mahal (Persian: ممتاز محل [mʊmˈt̪aːz mɛˈɦɛl], lit. 'the exalted one of the Palace'), born Arjumand Banu Begum (27 April 1593 – 17 June 1631) was the empress consort of the Mughal Empire from 19 January 1628 to 17 June 1631 as the chief consort of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan. The Taj Mahal in Agra, often cited as one of the Wonders of the World, was commissioned by her husband to act as her tomb.Mumtaz Mahal was born Arjumand Banu Begum in Agra to a family of Persian nobility. She was the daughter of Abu'l-Hasan Asaf Khan, a wealthy Persian noble who held high office in the Mughal Empire, and the niece of Empress Nur Jahan, the chief wife of Emperor Jahangir and the power behind the emperor. Read more on Wikipedia

Since 2007, the English Wikipedia page of Mumtaz Mahal has received more than 3,927,757 page views. Her biography is available in 54 different languages on Wikipedia (up from 51 in 2019). Mumtaz Mahal is the 136th most popular companion (down from 123rd in 2019), the 52nd most popular biography from India (down from 50th in 2019) and the 2nd most popular Indian Companion.

Mumtaz Mahal is most famous for being the wife of Emperor Shah Jahan, and for being the mother of his 14 children.

Memorability Metrics

  • 3.9M

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  • 73.59

    Historical Popularity Index (HPI)

  • 54

    Languages Editions (L)

  • 3.43

    Effective Languages (L*)

  • 5.45

    Coefficient of Variation (CV)

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Among companions, Mumtaz Mahal ranks 136 out of 687Before her are Elena of Montenegro, Caterina Sforza, Olga Constantinovna of Russia, Priscilla Presley, Marie Adélaïde of Savoy, and Caroline of Baden. After her are Malhun Hatun, Maria Luisa of Savoy, Sophia Dorothea of Hanover, Albert VII, Archduke of Austria, Gorgo, Queen of Sparta, and Alexandrine of Mecklenburg-Schwerin.

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Among people born in 1593, Mumtaz Mahal ranks 4Before her are Artemisia Gentileschi, Georges de La Tour, and Jacob Jordaens. After her are Toyotomi Hideyori, Matthäus Merian, Nicolaes Tulp, George I Rákóczi, Balthasar van der Ast, Anthony van Diemen, Catherine de' Medici, Governor of Siena, and George Herbert. Among people deceased in 1631, Mumtaz Mahal ranks 2Before her is John Donne. After her are John Smith, Sophie of Mecklenburg-Güstrow, Constance of Austria, Willem Janszoon, Archduchess Maria Maddalena of Austria, Michael Maestlin, Charles II Gonzaga, Duke of Nevers, Federico Borromeo, Katō Yoshiaki, and Guillén de Castro y Bellvis.

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In India

Among people born in India, Mumtaz Mahal ranks 52 out of 1,227Before her are Sita (null), Ghalib (1797), Salman Rushdie (1947), Augustus De Morgan (1806), Mahākāśyapa (-550), and Tipu Sultan (1750). After her are Narendra Modi (1950), Zubin Mehta (1936), Bal Gangadhar Tilak (1856), Premchand (1880), Sri Aurobindo (1872), and Amir Khusrow (1253).


Among companions born in India, Mumtaz Mahal ranks 2Before her are Sita (null). After her are Mariam-uz-Zamani (1542) and Brian Horrocks (1895).