Cardinal Richelieu

1585 - 1642

Cardinal Richelieu

Armand Jean du Plessis, Duke of Richelieu (French pronunciation: ​[aʁmɑ̃ ʒɑ̃ dy plɛsi]; 9 September 1585 – 4 December 1642), commonly referred to as Cardinal Richelieu (UK: , US: ; French: Cardinal de Richelieu [kaʁdinal d(ə) ʁiʃ(ə)ljø] (listen)), was a French clergyman and statesman. He was also known as l'Éminence rouge, or "the Red Eminence", a term derived from the title "Eminence" applied to cardinals, and the red robes they customarily wore. Consecrated as a bishop in 1607, he was appointed Foreign Secretary in 1616. Read more on Wikipedia

Since 2007, the English Wikipedia page of Cardinal Richelieu has received more than 2,024,122 page views. His biography is available in 73 different languages on Wikipedia making him the 112th most popular politician.

Memorability Metrics

  • 2.0M

    Page Views (PV)

  • 79.77

    Historical Popularity Index (HPI)

  • 73

    Languages Editions (L)

  • 11.05

    Effective Languages (L*)

  • 3.11

    Coefficient of Variation (CV)

Page views of Cardinal Richelieus by language


Among politicians, Cardinal Richelieu ranks 111 out of 14,801Before him are Wilhelm II, German Emperor, Osman I, Isabella I of Castile, Xerxes I, Louis XIII of France, and Muammar Gaddafi. After him are Murad I, Claudius, Mehmed III, Hermann Göring, Philip IV of France, and Angela Merkel.

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Among people born in 1585, Cardinal Richelieu ranks 1After him are Heinrich Schütz, Cornelius Jansen, Uriel da Costa, John George I, Elector of Saxony, Anna of Tyrol, Hendrick Avercamp, Lucilio Vanini, Zacharias Janssen, Jacob Le Maire, John Rolfe, and Jacques Lemercier. Among people deceased in 1642, Cardinal Richelieu ranks 2Before him is Galileo Galilei. After him are Marie de' Medici, Guido Reni, Saskia van Uylenburgh, Safi of Persia, Henri Coiffier de Ruzé, Marquis of Cinq-Mars, Dmitry Pozharsky, and Friedrich Kettler.

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In France

Among people born in France, Cardinal Richelieu ranks 47 out of 4,109Before him are Brigitte Bardot (1934), Charles Baudelaire (1821), André-Marie Ampère (1775), Pierre Curie (1859), Louis XIII of France (1601), and Michel Foucault (1926). After him are Eugène Delacroix (1798), Gustave Eiffel (1832), Claudius (-10), Auguste Rodin (1840), Philip IV of France (1268), and Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres (1780).


Among politicians born in France, Cardinal Richelieu ranks 9Before him are Louis XVI of France (1754), Giuseppe Garibaldi (1807), Napoleon III (1808), Louis XV of France (1710), Henry IV of France (1553), and Louis XIII of France (1601). After him are Claudius (-10), Philip IV of France (1268), Napoleon II (1811), Louis XVIII of France (1755), Louis IX of France (1214), and Francis I of France (1494).

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